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Final Fantasy XV is is an open world action-adventure game in the Final Fantasy series that was developed and published by Square Enix, with assistance from HexaDrive and XPEC Entertainment. Final Fantasy XIII (1284) Final Fantasy XIII Series (301) Final Fantasy XIII-2 (169) Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII (133) Final Fantasy XV (113) Final Fantasy VII (84) Final Fantasy (61) Final Fantasy X (42) Final Fantasy VIII (41) Kingdom Hearts (37) Include Characters Lightning (Final Fantasy XIII) (893) Oerba Yun Fang (549). It tells the story of the cycle that occurs before the events of the game. The universes of Final Fantasy XIII, Type-0 and Final Fantasy XV are unrelated to each other, though common elements and themes are present.

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OpenCritic is a review aggregator for video games, collecting reviews from the top publications in gaming such as IGN, GameSpot, Polygon, and Eurogamer. Due to its many systems (action, RTS, social and chocobo breeding. The starter edition is perfect for newcomers as it includes the award-winning Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn experience and lets you begin your adventure as the Warrior of Light all the way through level 50. PC Game Software Cheats and Hacks: Cheats & Hacks.

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It feels like a beast of a game – one worth playing over and over again. In my estimation, it was the Final Fantasy many fans had been begging for for years, and it was locked to a dying system in a single region. The following guide is a comprehensive map of the entirety of a game, including collectible locations and tips on how to defeat bosses. Language: Russian, English Type: PC.

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[Wings of Flame] JP Megathread (Type 0)

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Recent JP Megathreads

The Feelings of a Father (X) The Burden of Sin (VI) Craving the Evil Power (II) At the End of Life (IX) Four Lights Shine Again (V) Guided by Hopeful Prophecy (I) Pupil Carrying a Miracle (XIII) Come, Dancing Queen (XI) Inherited Heroism (IV)

September Fest Relic Reference

Portal

Helpful Links

[Boss Guide](/) Relic Draw Thread [Official Wiki](/)

Wings of Flame

Event time: 26/10 15:00 JST - 09/11 14:59 JST
New Awakening Rem
New Arcane Rem
New Ultra Eight, Cater
New Flash Art Rem, Cater
New Bursts Eight
New LMR Rem, Eight, Cater
New Characters and Record Spheres Eight
  • Stats: HP 6557, ATK 203, DEF 136, MAG 120, RES 133, MND 149, SPD 188
  • Equips: Dagger, Fist, Hat, LA, Bracer
  • Skills: Black Magic 3, White Magic 3, Combat 5, Celerity 5, Monk 5
  • Legend Materia:
    • Monk+15%
    • Trance: Restore HP to 100%, Self Atk+50%, Monk High Quickcast for 25s. Self Stun when Trance ends
  • Record Materia:
    • Auto-Haste
    • WCast Monk 8%
    • Monk+40%
  • Default SB:
  • Legend Sphere Motes: 100 Dexterity and 100 Vitality
Node SL1 SL2 SL3 SL4 SL5
Monk Def+1 Res+1 Atk+1 Atk+2 HP+80
Thief Atk+1 Def+1 Res+1 HP+55 Atk+2
Fighter Atk+1 HP+70 Def+1 Atk+1 Atk+2
Master Monk Def+3 HP+200 Atk+4 Atk+5 Monk+6%
Berserker Atk+2 Atk+2 Atk+3 Atk+3 Atk+5
Gladiator Atk+3 Def+3 HP+200 Atk+4 Atk+5
Tier Sphere 1 Sphere 2 Sphere 3 Sphere 4
1 Def+10 Res+10 Atk+10 -
2 Blind- HP+150 HP+150 Monk+3%
3 Res+20 LM1 Atk+10 -
4 Blind-- HP+250 HP+250 Monk+6%
5 Def+20 LM2 Atk+20 -
Cater
  • Stats: HP 6454, ATK 191, DEF 127, MAG 149, RES 149, MND 167, SPD 176
  • Equips: Dagger, Gun, Hat, LA, Bracer
  • Skills: Black Magic 3, White Magic 4, Support 5, Machinist 5, Sharpshooter 6
  • Legend Materia:
    • Gun+10%
    • WCast Machinist (35%)
  • Record Materia:
    • Gun+10%
    • Machinist Ether
    • Gun+30%
  • Default SB:
  • Legend Sphere Motes: 100 Vitality and 100 Bravery
Node SL1 SL2 SL3 SL4 SL5
Fighter Atk+1 HP+70 Def+1 Atk+1 Atk+2
Ranger Atk+1 Def+1 Res+1 HP+60 Atk+2
Thief Atk+1 Def+1 Res+1 HP+55 Atk+2
Gladiator Atk+3 Def+3 HP+200 Atk+4 Atk+6
Canoneer Atk+3 Def+3 HP+150 Gun+3% Machinist+6%
Ninja Atk+3 Res+3 Blind- Atk+6 Res+6
Tier Sphere 1 Sphere 2 Sphere 3 Sphere 4
1 Res+10 Def+10 Atk+10 -
2 Def+10 Paralysis- Machinist+3% HP+150
3 Def+15 LM1 Atk+10 -
4 Paralysis-- Res+20 HP+250 Machinist+6%
5 HP+400 LM2 Atk+15 -

Relic Draw Banner

Banner 1
Relic Type Character Soul Break/Legend Materia
Survival Edges Dagger (Holy) Rem Awakening: "Seraphim Strike" (WHT: 15 Single Holy/Dark/NE; Self High Quick Cast, Holy Awakening (∞ Holy Hones, Holy Rank Boost, 100% WCast Holy), Break Damage Limit Level 1, chase Holy with High Quick Cast 1)
Parrying Daggers Dagger (Holy) Rem Arcane: "Saint Flying Daggers" (WHT: 20x single Holy/Dark, then 1x single Holy/Dark overflow)
Killer Knuckles Fist (Ice) (KO) Eight Ultra: "Frostsnow Stance" (PHY: Instant 10x Single Ice/NE; Party Guts; Self En-Ice, Chase Monk with Phy 4x Single Ice/NE)
Magicite Blaste Gun Cater Ultra: "Tri-Charged Shot" (PHY: 10x Single Fire/Ice/Lightning; Self Machinist+30%, Quick Cast, chase every 2 Fire/Ice/Lightning Machinist with Minor Imperil)
Argentic Daggers Dagger Rem Ultra: "Manalchemy" (WHT: 10x Single Holy/Dark; Self En-Holy, High Quick Cast 1, "EX: Dominion": (Mnd+50%, Def/Res-15%, chase weakness with self High Quick Cast 1)
Argentic Rapiers Sword Machina Ultra: "Awakening" (PHY: 10x Single Earth/Dark; Self En-Earth, Dual Blink 2, "Assault Mode" : (Quick Cast, Chase Spellblade with phy 4-6X Single Earth/Dark. Status removed upon taking damage.)
Lustrous Armlet Bracer (Dark-) Rem Flash: "Tricolor Elementillery" (NAT: Self Stacking En-Holy, Refund 250 SB)
Cater's Guise LA Cater Flash: "Saint Aura" (PHY: 6x Random Fire/Ice/Lightning, Atk/Mag-50%)
Eight's Guise LA (Ice) Eight Burst: "Phantom Hail" (PHY: Instant 8x Single Ice/NE, Imperil Ice)
Mythril Gloves Bracer Rem LMR: "Expert of Magic" (Initial: En-Holy)
Silver Knuckles Fist Eight LMR: "Outstanding Acumen" (Initial: En-Ice)
Magicite Pisto Gun Cater LMR: "Bravery on the Battlefield" (Proc: % after Machinist, self cast speed x2 1)
Gold Hairpin Hat Rem LMR: "Gentle Spirit" (Buildup: White hits, MND+1% -> 25%)
Platinum Bangle Bracer Machina LMR: "Power Hungry" (Initial: En-Earth)
Banner 2
Relic Type Character Soul Break/Legend Materia
Draconic Deck Thrown (Fire) Ace Arcane: "Monolith Beam" (BLK: 20x single Fire, then 1x single Fire overflow)
Mythril Deck Thrown Ace Ultra: "Firaga BOM" (BLK: 10x Single Fire/NE; Self En-Fire, BLK+30%, "Draw Cards")
Anima Flute Instrument Deuce Ultra: "Concerto ff" (WHT: Instant h85; Party Res+100%, Guts)
Silver Whipblade Whip Seven Ultra: "Elementalash" (""BLK: 10x Single Ice/NE, Imperil Ice, Atk/Mag/Res-50%)
Flamberge Sword Queen Ultra: "Divine Judgment Blade" (PHY: 10x Single Lightning/Dark; Self En-Lightning, Atk/Def+30%, Quick Spellblade)
Nagamitsu Katana (Fire) Jack Ultra: "Deliverance" (PHY: 10x Single Fire/NE; Self En-Fire, MaxHP Recoil 99%, Stoneskin 100%, "Crimson Flash": (Atk+30%, High Quickcast Samurai, 100% WCast Samurai. Removes with Stoneskin.))
Lustrous Deck Thrown Ace Flash: "Cut Cards" (NAT: self stacking En-Fire, High Quick Cast 2)
Seven's Guise LA (Ice) Seven Burst: "Diving Strike" (BLK: 8x Single Ice/NE, Atk/Def/Mag/Res-30%, Burst Mode)
Jack's Guise LA (Ice-) Jack Burst: "Lightning Flash" (PHY: 8x Single Fire/NE, Imperil Fire, Burst Mode)
Flame Armlet Bracer (Fire) Ace LMR: "Chocobond" (Initial: En-Fire)
Feathered Cap Hat Deuce LMR: "Eye for Detail" (Boost: Buffs, Duration+30%)
Gauntlet Bracer Seven LMR: "Class Act" (Imperil: Ice)
Queen's Guise LA (Lightning) Queen LMR: "Calculated Craft" (WCast: Lightning)
Diamond Gloves Bracer Jack LMR: "Wielder of One Blade" (Initial: En-Fire)
Modes and Notes
  • Eight's Burst Mode:
    • PHY: 4x Single Ice/NE, 100% Crit Rate with Physical Blink active
    • PHY: Quick 2x Single Ice/NE, Self Physical Blink 1
  • Ace's Draw Cards:
    • Chase Black Magic with Force, then Charge, then Burst. Status removed after Burst.
    • "Force" (BLK: 2x Single Fire/NE, self High Quick Cast 2)
    • "Charge" (BLK: 2x Single Fire/Ne, Same Row 1,500 heal)
    • "Burst" (BLK: 8x Single Fire/NE)
  • Seven's Burst:
    • BLK: 2x Single Ice/NE, Atk-40%
    • BLK: 2x Single Ice/NE, Mag-50%
  • Jack's Burst:
    • PHY: 4x Single Fire/NE, Self Sam+15% 2
    • PHY: 2x Single Fire/NE, Self Retaliate

Additional Banners

Holy Mage Lucky Arcanes: Enna Kros Chains: Edward Ultras: Enna Kros, Tama, Arc 1 (DPS), Hope Bursts: Tama, Rem LMRs: Enna Kros, Tama, Arc, Edward 2 (QC3), Hope, Rem 2 (Chase)

General JP Version Information

Installing and Playing the Japanese version

Why should I play the Japanese version? FFRK came out in Japan about six months before Global came out. Thus, they're further along in terms of events and so have more characters, more abilities etc. Also, the trend has been that certain crossover events which feature games that were not released outside of Japan have been skipped in Global release, meaning there are currently certain items and abilities that do not appear they will ever be available in Global (it does not appear that they are skipping any characters).
Is there anything that is in Global but not in JP? The font and minor UI elements are also different in Global compared to JP. Global also has a controversial "MVP Program" where selected players receive items for free; JP has no such program. There are some collaboration items as well as some culture-specific events (such as Black Friday lucky draws) that appear in Global but not JP.
Great! How do I get the Japanese version? Check out the wiki article. Android users may also want to check out this tutorial if you do not know how to access the Japanese store and prefer not to use a third-party app like QooApp.
Can I play the JP version and Global version at the same time on the same device? Yes, the two are completely separate and do not affect each other.
How do I share my save data across devices? Unlike the Global version which uses one-time codes or goes through your iTunes/Play Store accounts, the JP version syncs through Japan's mobage service. Here's a tutorial from Mobage relayed by gelomeister (Android users can of course use Chrome instead of Safari etc.): Important notes - Please start the procedure after closing all browser and tabs opened on your iPad. - For this upgrade procedure, please make all the steps for the very same iPad tablet, including the email sending and receiving. - All actions made through browser need to be done using Safari. - Please note that if you log out before completing the upgrade of your simple membership (かんたん会員), you will not be able to successfully use the data transfer feature. - On our Site, you can register using services such as Yahoo! email or Gmail. Please note that the email address you will need to register must be an email address NOT already registered on our Site. - Please make sure to turn off the Privacy function of your Safari browser before starting the procedure. - How to turn off the Privacy function of your browser: On the bottom/right of the Safari page, tap on the icon in shape of 2 overlapped squares > then tap on “Private” on the bottom/left side of the screen (this will turn on and off the function). ※When Safari’s header and footer are colored in dark gray, the function is "on", when it is "off", both header and footer will be colored in white.
  • Upgrade procedure: 1) Start FINAL FANTASY Record Keeper on your iPad, tap on [メニュー] "Menu" and then [Mobage]. 2) On the bottom of the page, select [Mobageマイページ] , then [今すぐ登録する] (Register now). 3) Select [ブラウザを起動](Open browser), enter the e-mail address you want to register, select the domain and then select [送信](Send) and [上記に同意の上、送信](Send in agreement with information above). 4) You will receive an email from you Site at the address you registered including a URL, please copy this URL. 5) Access the screen to enter the e-mail address again like in Step 3) 6) Paste the URL you copied on 4) into the browser's address bar at the top of the page, to access it. 7) Enter your profile information as required on the page that you will access with this URL. ※If you have an error when try to access to the URL, it will not be possible to complete the procedure at present. In this case we would like to invite you to try again later.
Once the upgrade is completed, you will be able to use your account by e-mail address and login password registered in the User ID [xxxxxxxxx] by you to log in to the iPhone of FINAL FANTASY Record Keeper app: will be able to use the iPhone the data of the User ID [xxxxxxxxx] you.
 
※If you are logged in to another account [User ID: xxxxxxxxx] on your iPhone simply by login in the application FINAL FANTASY Record Keeper installed on your iPhone and using the same email address and login password previously recorded on the account [User ID: xxxxxxxxx]. If you are already logged in to a different account in your application FINAL FANTASY Record Keeper installed on your iPhone, just log out first by going in [メニュー](Menu), [各種情報・外部サイトへ](various information and external site) and then [ログアウト](logout).

General JP version Helpful Links

Enlir's Database - good overall reference JP Friend code site - auto-updated list of Friend codes for JP made by vexnon. Youtube channel for Soul Break videos - the official wiki has these too but can be harder to navigate. JP DeNA support email: [email protected] - for those having issues with the game. They have been known to reply to politely worded English mails.
submitted by RezzaDV to FFRecordKeeper

Assassin's Creed: Origins [49 - 44 BCE] - Historical Inaccuracies and Fact-Checking the Series

I started this series with UNITY, then went to AC1, AC2, Brotherhood, Revelations, AC3, Rogue. Black Flag. Syndicate. Now we're all caught up with Origins. The tenth major release of Assassin's Creed, and released in 2017, the ten year anniversary of the franchise. As a game, ORIGINS presents a lot of challenges. One is this game is set in the Antiquity, the first AC game to go way back to the Pre-Crusades era. Then there is the size of ORIGINS, which is incredibly big, a recreation of a big swathe of Cleopatra' Egypt. There is also the volume of game content here on offer which is extensive and daunting. Ubisoft released the excellent Discovery Tour which substitutes for their database and maps out events and stuff on to terrain in an unique way. The game consulted a lot of Egyptologists for its recreation of the pyramids and managed to get ahead of a real-life archaeological discovery based on the theories of one of their consultants. The game has a huge number of side-quests and missions but most of them are errands of one kind or another, grounded however with a thematic unity with the main game's story. This makes them consistent and feel substantial but also repetitive and there's rarely an exploration of the world in a larger scope. As such I am mainly going to talk about the main campaign from beginning to end, while discussing side missions only in part.
Setting: Ptolemaic Egypt in the reign of Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator overlapping with the final leg of Caesar's Civil War and his dictatorship.
MAIN CAMPAIGN
Bayek is a Medjay, an ancient office in the Pharaonic age. Bayek blames the Ptolemies for the end of the Medjay but in fact it collapsed before Egypt's first foreign occupation by the Persians, who preceded Alexander. As such, Bayek's story has more fiction than history but we still have historical figures among the Proto-Templars, Lucius Septimus, the real-life Gabiniani Roman who killed Pompey Magnus, and Pothinus, the Royal Eunuch who was main henchman and minder of Ptolemy XIII. Among the Proto-Assassins, we have Pasherienptah III, an obscure priest of Memphis who is fictionalized here, and of course we have Marcus Junius Brutus, and Cassius among Aya's Roman recruits who show up at the end of the game. Other historical figures we see are: Ptolemy XIII, Cleopatra VII, Julius Caesar, Pompey Magnus, Apollodorous the Sicilian, Marcus Vitruvius.
The main story of Origins is entirely about Bayek's religious quest to ensure that his son Khemu finds peace in the afterlife, the Field of Reeds, that his death as a result of the Proto-Templars is avenged. His son's name, as is clear in the last Siwa Quest ("Bayek's Promise") is based on Kemet, the Hieroglyphic word the natives used to call their land, as opposed to Egypt, the Greek word based on a transliteration of the Temple of Ptah in Memphis. There's a joke waiting to be written about how we use the Greek Word for Egypt (Kemet) and the Latin word for Greece (Hellas). Most of Origins because of its religious and spiritual dimension for Bayek, and his personal grief, so we see repeatedly Bayek doing missions for Temple Priests, fighting corrupt priests and so on. Bayek's religious devotion, as an Egyptian polytheist, also brings him in conflict with Aya, his half-Greek wife who is way more keyed into the political side of stuff, and who is more like a traditional Assassin protagonist for better and worse. And Aya is the one who gets Bayek involved in the Civil War between Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII, backing the latter and helping her come to power. Of these characters, very little is known about Apollodorous, Lucius Septimus and so on. So the game's take on them has the artistic license it needs.
The historical plot begins when Bayek comes to Alexandria, and meets Cleopatra in the mission "Egypt's Medjay". Cleopatra is one of the most speculated among historical figures because even if she comes from a period from which we have a lot of written sources (the First Century BCE), nearly everything that we know of her comes decades later, and much of it comes from the propaganda put forth by Augustus in his Civil War against Antony. That propaganda depending on how you see it either demonized her, or exaggerated her as more important than she likely deserved to be. In any case, recent biographers note that she was pretty young when she contested her Brother-Husband Ptolemy XIII to rule as Pharoah. The game's Cleopatra is not as young as she was, which was around 18-19 at the time she began her famous visit to the South to gain support from Egypt's traditional elite. She is also shown as this slutty vamp who comes on to Bayek and wears seductive dresses and so on, and is basically some Ptolemaic Lindsay Lohan. In actual fact, biographers like Stacy Schiff and Adrian Goldsworthy argue that it's highly likely she was a virgin when she met Caesar, and that it was Caesar who deflowered her. So this Cleopatra is more or less a redux of Caterina Sforza from AC2 in all matters. The game also follows recent tradition in focusing on Ptolemy XIII as her only rival. In actual fact the Alexandrine Civil War was a four-sided civil war with Cleopatra fighting Ptolemy XIII, another brother called Ptolemy, and her sister Arsinoe (sent to Rome as part of Caesar's triumph, but who the Roman mob so pitied that Caesar spared her and then had her live as a hostage. After his death, years later Antony executed her, likely on Cleopatra's orders). Cleopatra's appearance has an entire cottage industry dedicated to how beautiful she was or wasn't, with again everything depending on how much we can rely on Roman standards of beauty and whether it's consistent with Western norms today. Some posthumous mural has her with Red Hair and she was part of a dynasty of Macedonian inbred brother-sister marriages. But on the other hand, there's that report about her sister Arsinoe's tomb having African ancestry. In either case it doesn't matter, because Origins' Cleopatra looks almost exactly like her design from Asterix comics.
The bigger issue for me at least is her accent. In Origins, the developers took the decision to have Egyptians or Egyptian-Greeks talk with an accented English, while Ptolemaics and Romans talk like British, just like the Old Hollywood Ancient Epics. The problem is that one of the few widely known facts about Cleopatra is that she was the only one of her dynasty who learned the native Egyptian language, and indeed knew many languages including Hebrew and others. In the game we see Cleopatra speak in this accented English, when she should ideally sound like Bayek and Aya, or at least less like the other Ptolemaic-Romans. I personally think this could have been done if they used American accents which has more variety and diversity than British accents do, and it's one of those affectations, similar to UNITY's Napoleon the Corsican's English accent sounding like every other Parisien's, that for the sake of entertainment ends up communicating a distorted view.
Then we meet Pompeius Magnus on sea in Aya's first naval mission. This mission has Cleopatra secretly sending Aya as her agent to meet Pompey to get his support before Ptolemy XIII's. There's no record of Cleopatra seeking Pompey's alliance before Caesar. Their paths did cross when Pompey in his Conqueror of the East phase sent the Gabinus and other Roman soldiers to intervene in Egypt thus leading to the Gabiniani (as they ended up being known) settling there and becoming partly Hellenized. But Cleopatra was a small child at that time. Pompey the Great looks like his sculpture but he looks too young, when he was noted for having lost a lot of his good looks at the time of his death. And politically it makes no sense to court Pompey's alliance now, because Pompey post-Pharsalia coming to Egypt was being chased by the guy who kicked his ass. And it was fear of Caesar that led to his death at the orders of Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus.
The next historical mission is Cleopatra's meeting with Caesar ("Blade of the Goddess") which is an extended long mission. This scene makes a number of distortions from the record. We see Bayek and Co. with Cleopatra going to Pompey's side and then finding his decapitated body on the beach, and then deciding to go to Alexandria, where Cleopatra was exiled from, and meet Caesar. The meeting, as in Plutarch, has her wrapped in carpet, but rather than have that meeting in private (hence the whole carpet thing) we have her unfurled in the room with Caesar and Ptolemy XIII. We also see at the start of this cutscene, Caesar being presented Pompey's head and then shrugging it away. This is a huge distortion. Every source and every fictional version shows Caesar being grieved at seeing Pompey, ex-triumvir and ex-son-in-law being executed and especially at the hands of the smelly barbarian Egyptian-Greeks. Caesar like all Romans believed that every Roman citizen, and especially Roman heroes like Pompey, were worth more than any foreigner, king or peasant. And no rivalry towards Pompey would lead him to condone or shrugging away the execution of a Roman general at a foreign ruler's hands. Caesar's appearance has him looking like a John Slattery-type with a full head of white hair, when he was known for being balding and having a receding hairline (his own soldiers at his Triumphal parade called him, with affection, "the bald adulterer"). We have this weird thing about Caesar looking younger than recorded, and Cleopatra looking older, and I think the reasons why is to dial down the whole old-dude young-girl romance, again similar to Ezio and Caterina Sforza in AC2. Caesar's personality and character in ORIGINS is a major disappointment. This is one of the most important men in history, the guy whose calendar design is still in effect, but instead Caesar is shown as some clown, a puppet, and a bore. When Goldsworthy pointed out that when Caesar came to Alexandria, he actually relaxed, started drinking and going on binges with his soldiers, and was actually on vacation mode during his romance with Cleopatra. We also have Caesar having true love for Cleopatra. In real-life, Caesar's will left Cleopatra nothing. She was in Rome as a valued guest during the time of his assassination. Caesar according to Goldsworthy may have been fond of her, but it's more likely he saw her as another conquest. Since a bit later he had an affair with another Princess at Pergamum and a womanizer like him was probably not one to cast his wagon with a military-weak ruler like Ptolemaic-Egypt.
Then we have a very fast-forwarded portrayal of the Siege of Alexandria and the Nile. Aya lights a fire at the Pharos. Then in a repeat of Connor and Paul Revere, we have Bayek and Caesar on chariot. Which again, no way a Roman military commander like Caesar would allow. We also have Caesar mutter "The die is cast" the familiar translation of "Alea jacta est". In actual fact he quoted a Greek phrase from Menander, "anerriphtho kybos" which is actually closer to "Let's roll the dice". The difference in meaning is that "The die is cast" shows Caesar as being decisive and fatalistic, while "Let's roll the dice" shows him cautious, contingent, and improvising. Modern Caesar bios favor the second translation. Then we see Ptolemy XIII die in a cutscene, we see Caesar in a cutscene killing people like Jon Snow (which I feel we should have seen in the main game). We see Pothinus dying in a boss-fight when he was just executed by Caesar. Then in the aftermath, we see Caesar sparing Lucius Septimus, the Gabiniani who killed Khemu. Septimus was a real-life figure and he disappeared from history. The Shaw Play Caesar and Cleopatra showed Caesar pardoning Septimus but there this was shown as an example of Caesar's famous clemency. Here this is shown as Caesar selling out and becoming a Templar, and Cleopatra turning him with her dreams up about matching up to Alexander. All of this are cliches from Mankiewicz's Cleopatra.
The last historical mission and also the end of the game is the big one, the Ides of March, which the game gets wrong on multiple levels. Before we see Brutus and Cassius in Egypt with Bayek and Aya. Neither of them were in Egypt at this time. Both were in Rome, and even then Brutus had a governorship in Gaul for a while. We see Aya plotting out Caesar's assassination and then she sails to Rome. She comes to the Roman Forum and the Theater of Pompey, which was used as a temporary location after the senate house got burnt down during Clodius Pulcher's cremation. So that's true. The Roman Forum of the Republican era is quite different from the ruins in Rome today. That was from Augustus' time and he leveled Republican architecture to create a new more imperial Rome. Also the Roman Forum should be huge and crowded whereas in Origins we see a military encampment. We see Caesar call a meeting at the Senate apparently to be asked to be made King. This is false on multiple levels. The Senate called Caesar. Caesar was planning to go to Parthia to avenge Crassus' death. We also see all the senate attacking Caesar, which is a common mistake, but actually some in the Senate tried to help to Caesar but couldn't get through. Others were panicked, such as Cicero. Others were afraid I guess. Brutus before he stabs Caesar says they want "land for the people". "Land for the People" was Caesar's policy which Brutus and his entire faction, optimates, opposed. Then Aya, disguised as a senator (which all things considered is the least ridiculous part), stabs Caesar, and then in post-cutscene she goes to Cleopatra. We see her with Caesarion who looks too old...he should be 3 years old. Aya says, "the people call you dead tyrant's whore" but Caesar was popular and beloved by the Roman people. He wasn't seen by them as tyrannical. Quite the opposite. And nobody called Cleopatra anything until decades later with Mark Antony. Then the campaign ends.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
- ORIGINS has a major problem at its core. Namely that Bayek of Siwa's personal quest as a grief-stricken father which is indeed touching, well-written, well-acted and well-animated, doesn't fully fit the larger story of Cleopatra's reign and downfall, the death of Caesar, and the establishment of the Proto-Assassin Cult. That actually fits Aya's story better. Aya is the one who gets the missions doing the historical stuff and she gets to kill Caesar (on which more later) but it's obvious that Bayek is the main central character since he gets the side-missions and as a native Egyptian Medjay, and a practicing polytheist he's the one who better immerses us in the open world.
- This problem in the narrative's plot is peculiarly a result of the game's historical accuracy in showing the segregation of Ptolemaic Egypt. Ptolemaic Egypt, especially in Cleopatra's reign, is often romanticized as a time of cultural hybridity, where Greek culture synthesized with Ancient Egyptian culture. A lot of this comes from Ptolemaic propaganda, and the game's cutscenes often show and state this. What with Aya being part-Greek, and her marriage with Bayek as well as the Greek-Egyptian couple of Hotephres-Khenut in Faiyum Oasis. The reality is that the Ptolemaic era was quite segregated which indeed led some historians to, controversially, describe this era not as multi-culturalism but as an earlier form of apartheid where Greeks held all important positions in government, civic administration, military and cultural power, while Native Egyptians were never promoted to real positions of power and were left alone rather than oppressed and enslaved. There were separate law codes for Greeks and Egyptians and so on. Order was maintained in Egypt over a small minority thanks to foreign powers like the Persians, the Greeks, and then the Romans, patronizing, suborning, and supporting the Egyptian priestly caste, who encouraged the population to turn to religion and away from society. We see this in Origins with Bayek's religious devotion to the Egyptian pantheon which creates a subtle tension in his marriage to Aya who is Part-Greek and has a more skeptical and cynical attitude to religion. That scene where they talk at Alexander's tomb and offer contrasting opinions on that formidable asshole is quite insightful. Within the game, Bayek has no curiosity over any other faith or set of gods other than that of Egypt, which does illustrate and correct the common idea that all pre-christian polytheism was syncretic and inclusionary, when in fact that syncretism was exclusive to Roman society. Bayek's religious quest brings him in conflict with a few bad priests but it never has him interrogate the entire system which kept Egypt down, and the political turn in Bayek's quest never really works as compared to his own internal story.
- In terms of historical recreation, the most important city in the game is Alexandria. The Alexandria of this game is extremely small compared to the real thing. The real Alexandria was divided into five quarters based on the first five letters of the Greek Alphabet: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon. It was a city organized on a grid. And the city had a huge population for the ancient world, more than 500,000 in Cleopatra's reign at a conservative estimate, a more generous one suggests a million and it certainly did see that in the later Roman era. There should be as many NPCs here as we saw in UNITY, instead we see a city that resembles the Medieval-Renaissance sandboxes of the Altair-Ezio games, or for that matter the Colonial settlements from the New World games. One of the reasons why Alexandria, and Rome (which had a population of a million in the same time) fascinated people for so long, was that it would take more than a millennium for European cities of that scale to rise. That was as much a real reason for the grandeur and myth that was attached to it as was the famous monuments, the Library, and the Lighthouse. Alexandria also hosted at this time the largest Jewish community outside Judea, and 2 out of 5 quarters had Jewish majorities. There were synagogues across the entire city. Yet within this game we have one Synagogue and some Hebrew-speaking NPCs with no Jewish characters in the main game, the side-stories or even mentioned in the Discovery Tour. Alexandrian Jews were major supporters and backers of Caesar when he took the city and settled in, and given the early bad reception he and Romans got (the mob pelted them according to Goldsworthy), they were obviously a swing vote group. Caesar who was popular with Jewish settlers in Rome, actually passed laws in their favour. In other words, Jews were essential and key parts of this story, and yet once again Ubisoft neglects them from a period in which they were central to. Alexandrian Jews under the Ptolemies translated the Tanakh from Hebrew into Greek, known today as the Septuagint, and many of them contributed to what we now call Gnosticism. Origins denied us a chance to glimpse Jewish life before their exile, diaspora, and persecution. Which is one of the main reasons why an Ancient World setting is so fascinating and important to us even today.
- ORIGINS gets Alexandria wrong, and if it got Alexandria wrong, I am wondering why they chose Ptolemaic Egypt rather than an earlier period. As many historians point out Cleopatra's era is closer to us today than she is to the period of the Great Pyramids. Bayek's main religious quest and interests as a Medjay has nothing real attached to Cleopatra's reign both in terms of history, and in his own personal story quest, since Cleopatra's story is tied to his wife Aya, who very definitely doesn't share his religious inclinations (which again makes me wonder why they married). Ideally Bayek's religious devotion to the traditional gods and his general conservatism would make him suited to the reign of Akhenaten, and indeed the Curse of the Pharaohs DLC where he hunts down ghosts and phantoms of Akhenaten's court, including his wife Nefertiti and his son Tutankhamun, obviously embellished with fantasy hijinks and so on, actually gives him a more interesting character dynamic as someone who opposes the legacy of "the heretic" who tried to reverse Egypt's gods. Doing a religious conflict with entirely ancient and dead faiths (as opposed to the ones which still alive) would have been a more original story. Most of Origins' sandbox and gameplay is tied to the deserts, the small settlements, the pyramids, the tombs, but the plot is entirely confined to palace politics to which Bayek has no affection, for either the cities or its rulers. Fundamentally, Ptolemaic Cleopatra is not Ancient Egypt and its portrayal of Cleopatra as mentioned above is inaccurate and cliched, and sentimental. The lack of diversity and accuracy of detail in Alexandria makes it a failure of historical representation. The only reason it seems to be here is because AC wanted a familiar and overexposed and so easily retold story about Caesar and Cleopatra with a handy set of cliches to regurgitate. AC's in-house historian Maxime Durand in this interview with Bob Whitaker confessed that they wanted to do Republican Rome along with parts of Greece and Egypt. Which would be fine if it actually got something right about Roman politics, but as mentioned above it didn't. But more later.
- Following Ubisoft's 30-second rule, I checked up Siwa Oasis on wikipedia. Do you know what takes about six seconds to find? This paragraph on Siwa's native homosexual tolerance. Siwa Oasis according to historians and anthropologists has a documented tradition of welcoming, tolerating, and celebrating homosexual unions between men in the Islamic era which continued until the middle of the 20th Century when Nasser came to power. Some historians and anthropologists believe that this tradition could date back to antiquity, and represents a holdover or carryover from the Polytheistic era to the Christian and Islamic eras. Instead, we get no mention of this, no acknowledgement or hint of this anywhere. Not in Discovery Tour, not in side missions, and not the main quest. There is no mention of homosexuality within any of the main games, and instead there is this utterly sleazy easter egg. Bayek's relations within Siwa are all with women, Hepzefa, Aya, Kensa with no hint of him being gay or experimenting. I suppose Ubisoft thinks, based on Odyssey and its Three Hundred digital cosplay, that the only boy-lovers were in Athens and not in any part of the East, or so on. This information is even there in Travel Guides to Egypt, leave alone academic works (see sources below).
- Likewise, not dealing with slavery in the Renaissance is bad enough, but not dealing or acknowledging its reality in the Ancient World is a new level of denial because virtually every fictional depiction of the ancient world deals with slavery. Now obviously many Egyptologists and native Egyptians get upset with "the slaves built the pyramids thing" and so on (which isn't entirely debunked but certainly qualified better now), and Egyptians seem to have favored freedmen more than Greece and Rome, but there was definitely slavery from the time the Macedonians and Ptolemaics arrived. Aya and Bayek talk a lot about freedom and I wonder why they don't deal with slavery.
- The most interesting thing in Origins is the attitude to children. Historically, Rome and Greece practised infanticide, where deformed children or a kid that seemed weak would be dumped out, literally in garbage, which happened in the classical era of both civilizations. Children were also exposed to the elements, and exposed children were sold into slavery. According to Pomeroy and other historians, this practice was less common in Egypt of the same time. Infanticide wasn't practised as much, and exposed children were often picked up and nurtured and adopted as compared to Rome and Greece, where strangers would let them die. In Origins, we see Greek and Roman characters more callous about hurting and killing children, whether it's the Templar who kills Bayek's son, or the Greek woman Berenike who drowns Khadja or Cleopatra ordering the death of her annoying kid brother. So in Bayek's attitude and nurturing feeling towards children, both his son, and others, we actually see a good accurate impression of Egypt's great positive virtue which is worthy of praise and admiration. Origins has us see many children in the side missions and the main story, and it's rare to see an open-world game deal with that, leave alone something as violent and bloody as Origins.
- The title of Origins has gotten a lot of chuckles from AC fans. The AC Lore has Proto-Assassins to the time of Ancient Greece. The game Odyssey announced a few months after launch only made it even more ridiculous. Ptolemaic Egypt in the time of Cleopatra isn't an origin so much as a curtain call, a finale, and a farewell. But there is in on respect the title is apt, namely in that it shows us the original political assassination, the model for many copycats and repeats**.** This brings me to my final point. what is after all the fundamental element of Assassin's Creed, the fact that these games and its narratives repeatedly justifies and glorifies murder, especially when the victims are heads of state, guilty, and tyrants, which is absurd because as I showed in my commentary on earlier games, the Assassins more often than not serve some tyrants and attack others. But no story brings those issues as well as that of Julius Caesar's.
- The self-proclaimed Liberatores, Brutus and Cassius, who are numbered among the Assassins, weren't by any means good guys. Brutus, as per fellow conservative Cicero, a corrupt loan shark who sent goons to beat up the poor to get back his money. He and the Liberatores claimed to be restoring the Republic, but in practice they were acting like every other optimate faction who had murdered popular reformers from the time of the Gracchi. During his civil war with the 2nd Triumvirate, Brutus minted coins showing his face on it, which was illegal and against the norms, and following in the same vein as Pompey and Caesar. In other words, according to the historical view by Mary Beard and Adrian Goldsworthy, there is good reason to think Brutus would have been another warlord or dictator had he not lost and gotten "martyred" for liberty. And this is the kind of figure, AC has hitched to their wagon. Historically every good treatment of Caesar's assassination that I know presents this as a tragic act, steeped in horror at the violence, the betrayal by Caesar's closest friends, the act of murder happening in a hall of government. The fact that the assassination unleashed a spiral of civil war and led to the Empire. Origins treats this as a tale of good senators versus evil Caesar and presents it as unambiguously heroic. This action which inspired John Wilkes Booth to attack Lincoln thinking he was Brutus, as well as many other figures who justified other "propaganda of the deed" and which provided the model for Gavrilo Princip attacking the Archduke is reduced to a level below childish, because even small kids exposed to the Caesar story at a small age know that it's not to be celebrated. The failure to reckon with the gravity and ambiguity of this crime, the lack of reflection at the horror of their culpability in the fallout, is a major failure of this game, and ultimately it proves that Origins should not have been set in this Ptolemaic-Roman period since to the extent that the game deals with it, it fails.
CONCLUSION
- Let me say that I like Origins and I like Bayek. The Egypt of this game is unlike any other open-world setting and it looks amazing. The game shows the pyramids as they are now believed to have been, decorated, shiny, clean with caps at the top. This is probably the most accurate re-creation of the Ancient Pyramids than any pop-culture version of Egypt. The maps, the White Desert, the Black Desert and so on are amazing. I like getting heat-stroke by being in the desert and so on. The main redeeming virtue is its positive portrayal of Egyptian polytheism and sympathetic look at "pagan" worship since too often it's demonized in Christian works, and deprecated in secular works as either "atheists-but-not-in-name" or "not-truly-important". Egyptian pantheon in particular is often demonized as a source of Mummy curses as compared to Greek/Roman/Norse mythology so Origins contributed positively by offering a counter-view. That's leaving aside the moment when they cast white actors to play gods that is. I have no idea how accurate it is to Egyptian beliefs but Origins certainly gave me more insight into it than any other mainstream work.
The combat is obviously imported from Dark Souls, but it's still fitting because it feels like a sword-and-sandal peplum thing even if the combat tactics and maneuvers are very Hollywood. However, I will say that the main story at least the historical part is a huge letdown, it doesn't connect to Bayek's story, which given that he belongs to an older period of Egypt, the game should have been set in the time when that culture was still alive and not subjugated by foreigners. AC like many Western game companies have a hard time getting shareholders and marketers interested in real non-western settings, so whether it's AC1 and its choice on the minor Masyaf Assassins of the Third Crusade with its Western tenor rather than the Iranian Assassins of Alamut and its non-Western tenor, AC3's choice to make its story of a Mohawk revolve mainly on his white dad and his relations with white society; and Origins' decision to do a story and setting steeped in Ancient Lore in a time and place where the power is in the hands of European invaders, there's a timidity that prevents Ubisoft from taking the next step. The European games are likewise hampered by its obvious uncritical Eurocentrism and its refusal to engage with it outside the touristy EU propaganda stuff. Of the lot the New World games are the most interesting but even then not entirely successful. Every game, at its best and worst, shows some amount of compromise and timidity.
For all the credit it gets for shining a light on the unexpected and obscure, there's a hesitancy towards following through on the multi-culturalism that it announces on its disclaimer. The main attitude is reminiscent of Samuel Goldwyn's famous maxim, "let's invent some new cliches" or replace some cliches with new ones. There's a tendency towards touristy recreation and architecture over political and social development, older sources over newer ones.

SOURCES
  1. Alexandria, City of the Western Mind. Theodore Vrettos. 2001. The Free Press, division of Simon and Schuster.- City divided into Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon districts as per the Greek Alphabet, Pg. 4- Jewish Quarter as large as the Greeks. Synagogues spread across the city. Two of five city quarters were inhabited by Jews.- Caesar's Will made no mention of Cleopatra.
  2. Egypt, Greece and Rome - Civilization in the Ancient Mediterranean. Charles Freeman. Oxford University Press. 1999. Second Edition.- Augustus' propaganda against Antony, pg. 442-443.
  3. A History of Ancient Egypt. Nicolas Grimal. Blackwell. 1999- Egyptians turned to religion, away from politics under the Persian, Hellenic and Roman eras. Pg. 367-368.
  4. The Story of Egypt. Joann Fletcher. 2016. Pegasus Books.- Alexander's visit to the Oracle of Zeus-Ammon at Siwa oasis. 307-308.- Cleopatra's support from priests. 352-355.- Cleopatra's sister Arsinoe paraded in triumph. 367-358.- Caesar's Calendar. 358-359.
  5. SPQR. Mary Beard. 2015. W.W. Norton.- Population of Rome was 1 million inhabitants in the First Century BCE. Pg. 33- Caesar's distasteful triumph. Pg. 290-291- Caesar introducing the Calendar after consulting Egyptian astronomers. Pg. 292- Mercenary motives of Caesar's assassins, who printed coins in their likeness. Pg. 294-296.
  6. Cleopatra: A Life. Stacy Schiff. 2010. Little Brown and Company.- Population of Alexandria. High estimate is 3-6million, middle is 1 million, Low Estimate:500,000.
  7. Adrian Goldsworthy, Caesar: Life of a Colossus. Yale University Press. 2006.- Caesar's arrival greeted by fears, Alexandrine mob pelted his troops. 433- Alexandrian Jews backed Caesar. 443-443- Caesar's time in Alexandria. More relaxed, looser, started drinking and went on binges. Taking a vacation with Cleopatra after his time of non-stop campaigning since crossing the Rubicon. 444-446.- Caesar's triumph, Arsinoe invoked pity. 468-469.- Caesar became so confident of his safety, that he dismissed his bodyguard of loyal Spanish soldiers. During his assassination, some Senators tried to reach Caesar to help him but couldn't get through or were afraid of being killed. The Roman Forum is crowded, the people rally in grief at Caesar's death, and Caesar gets a popular funeral. 505-510.
  8. Adrian Goldsworthy. Antony and Cleopatra. Yale University Press. 2010. "Introduction"- summarizing thesis the marginal role Cleopatra in fact had. "The Two Lands", describing segregation in Ptolemaic Egypt.
  9. Encyclopaedia of Homosexuality, Vol. 2. edited by Wayne R. Dynes. Routledge. March 2016. https://books.google.com/books?id=g7TOCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT448&dq=Siwa+homosexuality&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitiMLqhMHdAhUPO60KHQOHCDwQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=Siwa%20homosexuality&f=false (Homosexuality in Ancient Siwa).
  10. Egypt. Dan Richardson. Rough Guides. Travel. 2003https://books.google.com/books?id=uL86PAq-eHMC&pg=PA562&dq=Siwa+homosexuality&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitiMLqhMHdAhUPO60KHQOHCDwQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=Siwa%20homosexuality&f=false
  11. The Many Faces of Homosexuality: Anthropological Approaches to Homosexual Behavior. Evelyn Blackwood. Routledge. 2013.
  12. Hellenistic Constructs: Essays in Culture, History, and Historiography. edited by A G Leventis et al.University of California Press, 1997. https://books.google.com/books?id=LNCv7A05JWoC&pg=PA5&dq=Ptolemaic+apartheid&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjxj928hsHdAhUJVa0KHbxrC9MQ6AEILzAB#v=onepage&q=Ptolemaic%20apartheid&f=false(Apartheid rather than multiculturalism)
  13. Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity. Sarah Pomeroy. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, May 18, 2011. Infanticide and Exposure of Children in Rome/Greece/Egypt.
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