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The Basic

In the prime number cipher:
  • "The Basic" = 201 primes
  • "Spread" = "The Basic" = 201 primes
Many of you will have heard of Event 201, which informed us about the coming 'Coronavirus pandemic'.
Rambling Context:
I first began looking into the number 1933 (and thus also 933) because of this novel, published in that year (of which I have a very yellowed 1930's print edition)...
The novel has the frame story that it is a record of a series of dreams by a UN politician, which were confided to the 'author'. The entire book is written as a history book for the school student of 2106 AD, explaining the fall of our current civilization and how our future (and their current) Utopia was built. Critics go to lengths to discredit the various 'predictions' made but in general, there is a thematic arch that is nonetheless perhaps worth paying attention to (ie. exact dates are not really relevant, but the sequence is - it's the changes in the society, and the forces causing them, and in what order, that are perhaps more important - worth paying attention to as political lessons, if not as some form of prophecy or predictive programming, which cannot be discounted).
I have read the Shape of Things to Come twice, both times years ago. After my first read-through, I was impressed and entirely depressed, coming to reflect anew upon the dismal state of affairs in our own time. That things could be fixed if we could just do ... this or that.
A few years later, reading it again, I had a totally different impression. I was horrified at the Grand Presumption that Scientific Order claimed for itself as Shepherd of Man - not so much in the abstract - but because of the inevitable corruption that stains all valorous abstractions. No centrally powerful priesthood can be trusted, until man is perfected - which of course, is the overarching theme of the novel.
I might have to go through it again to see how my perspective might have shifted since the last reading.
Anyway, of the novel ('Europe' can imply all of 'western civilization', and perhaps might represent the entire world), wikipedia has:
A long economic slump causes a major war that leaves Europe devastated and threatened by plague. The nations with the strongest air-forces set up a benevolent dictatorship that paves the way for world peace by abolishing national divisions, enforcing the English language, promoting scientific learning and outlawing religion. The enlightened world-citizens are able to depose the dictators peacefully, and go on to breed a new race of super-talents, able to maintain a permanent utopia.
The book was published in 1933
  • "To Go Viral" = 1933 squares
  • .. "Catch the Coronavirus" = 1933 trigonal
  • ... "You cannot deny it" = 1933 trigonal
  • ... ... "The Infection" = 933 trigonal
  • ... ... "SARS-CoV-2" = 933 trigonal
  • ... ... .. [ "Original Sin" = 933 trigonal ]
  • ... ... .. .. (ie. The Bible is another key Textbook)
The number 933 is composed of 93 and 33.
  • "The" = "Name" = "Magic" = 33 alphabetic
  • "The Word" = 93 alphabetic
  • ... ( "Strong" = 93 alphabetic )
  • ... ( "Bend the Knee" = 93 alphabetic )
  • ... ( "Bend the Knee" = "Corona" = 224 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • .... .. .. .. ( "Disease" = 224 english-extended )
  • ... .. .. ... .. ( "Soul" = "Temple" = 224 primes )
Wells' predicted war ends with no victor but total exhaustion, collapse and disintegration of all the fighting states and of the neutral countries, which are equally affected by the deepening economic crisis. The whole world descends into chaos: nearly all governments break down, and a devastating plague in 1956 and 1957 kills a large part of humanity and almost destroys civilization.
Wells then envisages a benevolent dictatorship, "The Dictatorship of the Air", which arises from the controllers of the world's surviving transport systems, who are the only people with global power. The dictatorship promotes science, enforces Basic English as a global lingua franca and eradicates all religions, setting the world on the road to a peaceful utopia. When the dictatorship chooses to execute a subject, the condemned person is given a chance to take a poison tablet (modelled on the Hemlock given to Socrates).
  • "Dictatorship of the Air" = "A Novel Coronavirus" = 224 alphabetic
The achievement of a classless society is not via a Marxist Dictatorship of the Proletariat, an idea that Wells completely rejected. Rather, the working class is massively "pulled upwards" and completely eliminated in several generations of intensive upward social mobility, in effect leaving a humanity entirely composed of "middle class intellectuals". The limited amount of physical labor still needed is performed by the world's youths, who undergo two years of "labor conscription" instead of military conscription, which is no longer needed.
  • "Middle class intellectual" = 1,189 english-extended
  • ... ( "Understand the Codes" = 1,189 english-extended )
  • ... .. .. ( "A First Step" = 1,189 trigonal )
  • ... .. .. [ "Breaking News" = 1,189 jewish-latin-agrippa ]
Eventually, after about 100 years of reshaping humanity, the Dictatorship of the Air is overthrown in a completely-bloodless coup, the former rulers are sent into honourable retirement and the world state "withers away". The last part of the book is a detailed description of the utopian world that emerges. The ultimate aim of this utopian world is to produce a world society composed entirely of polymaths, every one of its members being the intellectual equal of the greatest geniuses of the past.
  • "The Utopian Society" = 2020 trigonal
  • "Coronavirus Religion" = 2020 trigonal
The book displays one of the earliest uses of the abbreviation "C.E.", which Wells explains as "Christian Era" but it is now more usually understood as "Common Era"
The 'bloodless coup' is what I reference in terms of 'forgiveness' in this sort-of-poem:
This year is 2020 AD, and next year is 2021 AD
  • "Century" = 2020 squares
  • "1 Century" = 2021 squares
  • "A Century" = 2021 squares
  • "Measure Time" = "Time Measure" = 2021 squares
  • ... ( "New Count" = 2021 squares )
  • ... . ( "The New Son" = 2021 squares )
  • ... .. ( "Birth a Deity" = 2021 squares )
  • ... ... ( "A Rulership" = 2021 squares )
  • ... ... . ( "I am Sovereign" = 2021 squares )
  • ... .. ... ( "Take the Fort" = 2021 squares )
  • ... .. ... .. [ "Ziggurat" = 2021 squares ]
  • "Coronavirus Religion" = 2020 trigonal
  • .... ( "Find Virus" = 2020 squares )
  • .... .. ( "Virus Job" = 2020 squares )
  • .... . ... [ "I'm the Eschaton" = 2020 squares ]
  • .... . ... [ [ "I am the Eschaton" = 2021 squares ] ]
  • .... . ... [ [ ... "Writings" = 2021 squares ] ]
  • .... . ... [ [ ... "To End All Disease" = 2021 squares ] ]
Many understand '20/20' vision as a symbol for clear sight, which we might extend to 'understanding'.
  • "Eye Measure" = 2020 squares [ ruler @ measure ]
Do you have 20/20 vision? Are the small letters on the chart...
  • "Entirely Obvious" = 2020 english-extended ( ? )
Next year you work for the Matrix Architect.
  • "Machine's City" = 2021 squares
You are all being brainwashed to be..
  • "City Machines" = 2021 squares
  • "Victory of the Machines" = 2021 trigonal
The Meat of the Matter:
The main reason for this thread is the notion of the 'enforcing of Basic English'. Of course, this has happened already, for a large portion of the world, in terms of much day-to-day commerce. English is the international language of worldwide Air Traffic Control. The 26-letter English-Latin alphabet is used, with little modification, by those writing many other languages.
  • "Spread" = 201 primes
  • "The Basic" = 201 primes ( "Twenty Six" = 555 primes )
Leaping wordplay, discount it, if it irks you:
Bass Sick @ Sick Bass @ Low Music @ Deep Frequencies @ Subliminal Sound @ ELF
The word 'Low' is an anagram of 'Owl', the bringer of the Wizard's mail and symbol of Wisdom and Fear. They also swoop low to catch their prey. Silently.
  • "Basic English" = "The Message" = "The Show" = 317 primes
  • ... .. ( "Whisper" = "A Great Theme" = 317 primes )
  • "Anthem" = "The Man" = 187 primes
  • .. ( "The Grand Framework" = 187 alphabetic )
  • .. ( "The Restoration" = 187 alphabetic )
The Orthodox is "Formal" = 187 jewish-latin-agrippa
.... .. 187 @ 187 .. ...
  • "Truth" = "Undeniable" = 87 alphabetic
  • ... .. ( "1 Man" = 87 primes )
  • .
  • "Truth" = "Nothing" = 87 alphabetic ( nothing @ zero @ sifr @ cipher )
... and for most, or all...
  • The Writings" = 1331 trigonal ( sapphire )
  • "Shape the World" = 1331 jewish-latin-agrippa ( zephyr )
As they say...
'As it is written, so it shall be done.'
I will modify that:
"As it is written, so it is done" = 108 reduced | 1980 jewish-latin-agrippa
I make that modification because of its changed semantics, and to reference the key number 108, and because I was conceived in 1980, and born the next year.
The number 108 crops up in many religious observances, as well as in the orbital mechanics of Sun, Moon and Earth.
  • "Basic English" = "The Rules" = "Secret Club" = 108 alphabetic
  • ... ( "Geometry" = 108 alphabetic | 108 reverse alphabetic )
  • ... ( "Full Moon" = 108 alphabetic | 108 reverse alphabetic )
  • ... .. [ "Coronavirus Religion" = 2020 trigonal ]
  • ... .. [ "To Gather Under the Moon" = 2020 trigonal ]
'Gematria' is the Art of Numbers hiding behind Letters. It implies 'Geometry of Writing'.
  • "Basic English" = 54 in reduction [ 108 / 2 = 54 ]
  • ... ( "Sun" = 54 alphabetic )
  • ... ... ( "Love" = 54 alphabetic )
  • ... ... ( "Health" = 54 alphabetic )
  • ... ... ... ( "Nutritional" = 54 in reduction )
  • ... [ "Anthem" = "To Heal" = "The Man" = 187 primes ]
  • .. .. ( "The Grand Framework" = 187 alphabetic )
  • .. .. ( "The Restoration" = 187 alphabetic )
The Interactions of the Moon and Sun are Alchemical Keys, being Female and Male archetypes (at the very least). The Eclipse is a Key.
The 'Bicycle' is a 'Two-cycle', and the Sun and Moon have two interlocking cycles.
Time, and Timekeeping are Keys. The Kiss is one of the Great Keys.
  • "The Riddle" = "The Time" = "One Time" = 247 primes [ Open 24/7 ]
  • "Basic English" = 742 trigonal
  • "The New Lore of Spelling" = 742 primes
  • .. "Welcome to the School" = 1,742 trigonal
The golden ratio accurate to three decimal places, is 1.618...
  • "Know the Basic English School" = 1,618 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ( "Know a textbook" = 1,618 jewish-latin-agrippa )
The map is not the territory (the terror of torah), or so they say.
  • "Know Geography" = 1,618 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ( "Symbolic" = "Geography" = 1,618 squares )
It will be up to you to decide if the enforcement of Basic English is to be desired or not.
And it will be up to you to decide if my writings here are aiding the Language Conquest envisioned in the novel, or working against it, or stand as neutral witness.
I am not sure myself.
The word Witness is a Key.
As is, Written.
T H E . B A S I C ( "Enforce the English Language" = 711 primes ) [ enforce @ one force ]
0. Zero.Nothing.Circle.Zero.Cipher.Corona.Everything.Circle.Zero (@ Nero @ Eroz @ Eros)
1. Language is an Enigma (Machine). 'A' is a Key. Either you have a Point, or you don't.
2. Language is a Transmission of Enigmatic Spells, encoding Ideas. There are many 'Languages', but they are Dividing Branches rooted in The One Tree of Language. Division is a Key. Division is a Math-thematical Operation, and the Operation is the Great Work. Division is the trickiest of the basic algebraic procedures. The Monad divides into the Dyad, yet the Monad, or it's Concept, remains. Two hands (or Wings) work better than One. Animals onto the Archive two-by-two. Duality is a Duel that Ties. Breaking News: To Be or not, is a Key. Two Points implies a Vector: a Direction. The Vector has a Direction. The Victor has an Objective. One walks the Beaten Path, or strays, which may or may not be to go astray.
3. There are ostensibly Practical Ideas (needs, desires, dangers, general denotion of objects) and Abstract Ideas (futures, pasts, times, organisms, systems, numbers, symbols, relationships, metaphors). Sometimes the Practical is used to refer to the Ideal, and vise versa. While you might have a single Definition or understanding of a Word, others might have more, and imply them in their works, and if you blink, you just might miss them. ABC is a Key. Trilogy, Trinity and Threesome are Three Keys. Fire and Water. Air and Earth. The Triangle is a Pyramid viewed from one side. The Triangle is A First Surface. It is a Field, Bounded, like a Circle or Sphere, which are themselves expanded Points. Know Family is a Key. Families are made by Spelling.
4. In commonly-known lore, Spells are Magic Enigmas, cast by Gods, Wizards and Witches, characters associated with wisdom, intelligence and guile. Characters that are never 'arbitrary', but rather 'nice' (in the obsolete sense of the word). How many Corners hath the Earth? ABCD is a Key: The Door Deletes Memory. The Cube in which you sit is a Key. Who are you sitting there For?
5. The Spells (ie. words in the Dictionary and the Saurus) were made and then formalized by a God, Wizard or Witch. It is likely they contain niceties. Most people cast spells unwittingly. Mages cast them knowingly. There is no Fairy Tale, and no Fantasy, if there is no Spell of some kind. Spells are Elemental, and thus Particular. 'V' is a Key, reflecting 'Λ', and these dualities of the Sounds of El. Quintessence. The Blazing Star. Five is a Key.
6. The Lexicon might be a Dark Crystal of information in more metaphorical ways than one. The Enigmatic Crystal is perhaps partly broken down, or shattered. The cracks might be found in the division between French and German, or between English and Russian, or between the dialects of Khoe and Hebrew, between Fire and Water, and between Earth and Air. The cracks are how the light gets in [see the splintering of the geometric tongues reflected in the film Arrival]. The word 'crack' is the word 'church' in disguise (and this sort of fluid linguistic transformation - a liquid wordplay - is a Key to the Language of the Birds). The church is built upon, or within, a Rock. A small Rock is a Stone, or the Isopsephic Pebble of the Philosopher.
7. There are perhaps Key Ideas.
8. Key Ideas are likely to be those things that most Awed the Creator of the Enigma: that prompted the Creation of the Enigma in the First Place. And it is likely that these Keys are those used to unlock it - or to align it (or the Perceiver) so that it's Contents might be correctly perceived. Fine Optics requires Precision Geometry. Curves are Angelic Keys. Time Stops if you turn the Hourglass on it's side. Do not Cross the Beams. Do as I say, and not as I do. Do something.
9. The 'Manuscript', and in particular, 'The Illuminated Manuscript', is a Key. The 'Light' of the 'Illumination' is a literal and figurative wordplay, as is the closely related key, 'The Book' (and it's Pages, and it's Letters, it's Contents, and it's Index). Illuminated Letters. Letters of Light. The opposite of Light is Shade. The Shadow is a Key. The Gnomon, or Gnome, projects a Shadow in order to Measure the Geometry of the Light. You are made of Light, yet you are invisible in the Dark. Though you are of Light, you have Darkness in You. If the Enigma reflects you, or if you are of it's Pattern, then so it is with the Enigma. The Brightest Flame burns quickest. The Dark is that which is In Umber.
10. Words (spells) contain Alphanumeric Spectra (ie. Specter, the Digital Ghost in the Machine). That is, they contain enciphered Numbers (data points, or da'at pints). The Number is The Key. These numbers are implicit. They have not been 'assigned' to the Letters in the Alphabet, but rather, the Act of standardizing the Alphabetic Order conjures the Cyphers (Sefers, Serifs, Seraphs, Surfers) into existence. Either you acknowledge them or you do not. Either you see the potential that these numeric spectrum could have been intentionally constructed by act of letter choice, or you do not. The Tetractys is a Key.
11. The Spectrum of a Spell is the set of numbers extracted from a set of cyphers. I argue that those most obvious and intuitive cyphers are the ones that deserve the most investigation, and the more obfuscated and twisted the cipher mapping, the less likely investigation will lead to results (with the caveat of the Theory of Totality - that indeed, the Lexicon is the Monolith and a Deific Mind Map, with information to be extracted no matter the angle of incidence). In selecting cyphers to observe, we consider again the Mind of the Architect of the Enigma. What would interest IT? ... Prime numbers are Prime. They are Primary. They are the Singletons, the Black Holes, the Gods or Titans of numbers. Obviously, a Wizard will prefer them, or at least revere them. The Division of Odd and Even is a Key. Those Numbers that implicitly denote constructive Geometry, like the Triangular numbers and the Squares, and the Hexes, and the Stars, etc. will likely be leveraged as Elemental Tools. The Wizard in Dungeons & Dragons has a Spell-component Pouch (itself a metaphor). 'The Master' is a Key.
12. Knights of the Round Table. 12 Disciples. 12 Labours. 12 Hours in a half-day. Time is Key, and Counting Times is Key, and Counting is The Key. Adding is a Key, as is the Adder. The Total is a Key, as is the Summit. The Speech is a Key, as is the Peak of the Mound of Spice. The Oral History is itself it's own Key. Mythology and Legendarium, and Religious Icons are Keys. Old Canon catch-phrases are Inceptions. The Circle is a Key.
13. The word Lucky <--- Luce / Luke <--- Luccifer <-- Light-bearer <-- Illuminator
14. Accept Death, but do not dwell on it. Nonetheless, Death is a Key. Unlearn what you have Learned, but Remember all of it.
15. The Yin-Yang is a Key. Opposites Oppose, and Opposites Attract. As-above-so-below. If in doubt, Revolve. There will be Drama. There will be Trauma. There will be Dreams. There will be Drums. Find the Light in the Dark. Be the Light in the Dark - a Derk of the Light. The Torque of the Vortex. Speech is a Hurricane, if you are small enough. The Selfish Occultist Hides, while the Occultist Mentor Reveals by making a Show of Hiding. A Teacher shows what he or she Knows - but some would say that Knowledge cometh through Trial only.
16. Innuendo is Eternal. He or She that casts Spells is a Cunning Linguist. The Language Enigma is better understood when one sees that the Ocean of Language is Naughty Tickle. The Best Parts are Hidden, as are the Scariest ones.
...18. What came first - the Chicken or the Egg? As it is with Metaphor.
...19. At any particular Time, to avoid Chaos, some things are (Generally) Forbidden. Reflections are not the Thing Reflected, except when they are.
...20. Zero is the Sigil of the Cipher itself. Adding Zeros is to add 'Encipherment'. It also Magnifies, which is to pull the Eye toward it. Numbers with Magnifying Zeroes are simultaneously stronger and weaker than the reduced form of the number (ie. 20 vs 200 vs 2)
...21. Pirate Jokes are Keys.
...22. Think like the Architect, in order to understand the justifications for his Magnum Opus. If you don't know how he thinks, it might be worthwhile exercise to try and discover it.
...23. The Enigma is a Key.
...24. Thrones. Hours. Watches. Each Hour a Gate and a Passage. The Ritual is an Operation in Time, as is Music. The Liturgy is a Key, as is the Missal.
...25. Two sets of Five fingers on Each Hand. The Power is in your Hands, if you are a Labourer. Snarky comments are unbecoming. Mockery is everywhere. Sometimes it works to your betterment. Sometimes it breaks you down with no intention of building you up again.
...26. There are this many Letters in the English-Latin Alphabet. The World of Words is a Key. How many Letters does it take to make a Logos?
...28. The Mage might have Numbers he actively avoids, driven perhaps by superstition and unreasonable paranoia. Twenty-eight is the second Perfect Number, after Six. The Moon is a Key.
...29. Some numbers will remain Invisible and Opaque to the Magus, until he or she makes a concerted effort to work with them. The Blind Spot is a Key.
...30. Fear not. Be aware. The Fool, or the Zeroth, hath no Value, and yet is oft the most valuable Card. The Card is a Key.
This article might be read as a sibling to this one:
Index: https://old.reddit.com/GeometersOfHistory/wiki/index
Posted as 22:03 UTC ( "The Law" = 223 primes )
  • "Downvote the stuff I don't like" = 1019 primes | 322 alphabetic
  • ... .. ( "The Slaves" = 1019 jewish-latin-agrippa )
The restoration:
Recycling shortcut
New “targeted healing” approach rejuvenates run-down battery materials
Rather than break down cathode material, why not restore it?
  • "A Targeted Healing" = 393 jewish-latin-agrippa | 969 trigonal
  • ... ( "Accurate" = "Count" = 393 jewish-latin-agrippa ) ( "Matrix Code" = 969 trigonal )
... while...
  • "Cathode material" = 1010 trigonal ( ode to a cat )
  • ... ( "Covid-nineteen" = "Revelation" = 1010 jewish-latin-agrippa )
rejuvenates run-down battery materials
  • "Know Rune Batteries" = 1717 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • "The Recycle Shortcut" = 742 primes
  • ... ( the Re Cycle cut short ) [ see wikipedia featured article at time of writing, here ] (*)
Just don't do it
CDC Thanksgiving guidance: No traveling, no outside-household members
Agency also defined "household" as people actively living with you in last two weeks.
  • "CDC Thanksgiving guidance" = 1300 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • .. ( "Do not do it" = 407 jewish-latin-agrippa | 363 primes )
  • ... .. ( "Time Travel" = 407 primes ) ( "Give Thanks" = 363 primes )
Q: ?
"A: The Time-Travel Warnings" = 2001 english-extended
The golden ratio is easily symbolized using the number 618 and 1,618:
  • "To Master the Time" = 618 primes
  • "Coronavirus" = "To Master the Time" = 1,163 english-extended
  • "The Master of Time" = 969 english-extended | 619 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • "Know the Master of Time" = 87 reduced | 1,619 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • "A=1: Know I am Time Master" = 1492 jewish-latin-agrippa | 1,745 trigonal | 76 reduction
Time Travel:
  • "What will I do?" = "What I will do" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. "You will take off the mask" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. .. .. "Coronavirus outbreak debunked" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ... ... .. .. ( "A Grand Celebration" = 2021 squares )
  • ... ... ... .. .. .. ( "Covid-nineteen Salvation" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... ... ... .. .... .. .. ( "Mysterious Doctor" = 2021 english-extended )
  • ... ... ... .. .... .. [ "Know the Dark Knight of the soul" = 2021 english-extended ]
  • ... .. .. ... .. .. ... [ [ "I am the Eschaton" = "Writings" = 2021 squares ] ]
  • .
  • "What will I do?" = "What I will do" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... "Coronavirus outbreak debunked" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. "Storm the Government Building" = 2021 english-extended
  • ... ... ... ( "A Grand Celebration" = 2021 squares )
  • ... ... ... ... .. ( "This is Fun" = 2021 squares )
  • .
  • "What will I do?" = "What I will do" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. .. "Live through all of history" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ... .. .. "A Rulership" = 2021 squares
  • ... ... .. .. "1 Rulership" = 2021 squares
  • ... ... ...( "Coven of the World" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... ... ... ( "The Unbroken" = 2021 squares )
  • ... ... ... ... ( "Heartstone" = 2021 squares )
  • .
  • "What will I do?" = "What I will do" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... "The Start of a Story" = 2021 english-extended
  • ... ... "Know a Witch" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ... "Know Woman" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ... ... ( "Mysterious Doctor" = 2021 english-extended )
  • ... ... ... ... ( "Make it up as you go along" = 2021 english-extended )
Sounds attractive.
  • "The Key of Whimsy" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ( "The Tales from the Crypt" = 2021 squares )
"Note that there are Numbers hidden behind the Letters of English" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • "The 1.2.3: The very confusing beginning" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa | 1010 primes
  • "The A.B.C: The very confusing beginning" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
The number 2020 is easily constructed by adding 1010 and 1010.
  • "Covid-nineteen" = "Revelation" = 1010 jewish-latin-agrippa
... and thus...
  • "Covid-nineteen Revelation" = 2020 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • "The Hospital" = "To end all disease" = 2021 squares
  • ... ( "Mysterious Doctor" = 2021 english-extended )
  • ... .. ( "The Sacred Places" = 2021 squares )
  • ... .. .. ( "The Souls" = 2021 squares )
  • ... .. .. .. ( "Carry Light" = 2021 squares )
  • ... .. ( "The Alphabet as Code" = 2021 squares )
  • ... .. .. ( "People Speaking" = 2021 squares )
  • ... .. .. ( "On the News" = 2021 squares )
New art-tickles:
Apple M1
Mac mini and Apple Silicon M1 review: Not so crazy after all
The M1 is amazingly fast. More importantly, it's a compatibility slam dunk.
  • "It's a compatibility slam dunk" = 1,388 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. "Innuendo" = 388 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. .. "Numerical" = 388 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. .. ... "Hidden Messages" = 388 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ... ... ... ( "Great Spell" = 388 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... ... ... ... .. ( "The Knowing" = 388 primes )
  • ... ... ... ... ... ... [ "Writings" = 388 primes | 2021 squares ]
  • "More importantly, it's a compatibility slam dunk" = 1,666 primes
Q: ?
"A: Not so crazy after all" = 777 primes ( "A Slam Dunk"= 303 primes | 96 alph | 773 tri )
EDIT 2 - next day *re. 'tales from the crypt' above:
Archeologists in Spain find 400 tombs in ancient Islamic necropolis
This Pandemic Must Be Seen
  • "Fearporn" = 322 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • "Pandemic Scene" = 322 primes
  • "Coronavirus pandemic must be sin" = 2021 jewish-latin-agrippa
The clique:
  • "Pandemic Scene" = 1,369 squares
  • .. ( "The Mighty" = "Humanity" = 369 primes )
  • .. .. .. ( "The Alphabet Code" = 369 primes )
[Ireland] Government announces nationwide 'no homework day' to thank children for all their hard work throughout pandemic
Mockery: a wordplay on the fact that everyone is working from home.
Homework Day @ DY @ Dye @ Dei @ Die
  • "No Homework, Die" = 911 english-extended
  • .. ( "No Homework" = 1,223 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... .. ( "The Law" = 223 primes )
... and we already know that...
  • "Irish" = 911squares
... while...
  • "Work Pandemic" = 1,303 trigonal
  • ... "Coronavirus" = 1,303 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. ( "Virus Job" = 2020 squares )
  • .. [ ie. the issue of work must be tied to the virus in 2020 ]
Where is the...
  • "Coronavirus Proof" = 1981 trigonal (?)
  • "What is Coronavirus" = 1981 english-extended (?)
However, 'coronavirus proof' is simply an anagram for a 'carnivorous proof', which is to eat meat and enjoy it, so more specifically (and with definite article), where is ...
  • "The Covid-nineteen proof" = 1,369 jewish-latin-agrippa (?)
  • ... ( "The Alphabet Code" = "Humanity" = 369 primes )
  • ... .. .. [ "The Covid-nineteen Mockery" = 1981 english-extended ]
  • "The proof against covid-nineteen" = 1,617 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ( "Know textbook" = 1,617 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. . ( "Textbook" = 617 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... ( "The Official Narrative" = 617 primes )
  • "The proof against covid-nineteen" = 1717 english-extended
  • ... .. ( "The Occult" = 1717 squares )
  • ... .. ( "Know the Letters" = 1717 trigonal )
Golden ratio:
  • "Know a Textbook" = 1,618 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • .. ( "The proof against a covid-nineteen" = 1,618 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... .. [ "The Debunking" = 1,618 trigonal ]
  • "Coronavirus Religion" = "Carnivorous Religion" = 2020 trigonal
  • ... ( "The Virus: a faith" = "The Virus origin" = 1337 english-extended )
  • ... ... .. ( "Know a Cannibal Religion" = 1337 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... .. .. ... ( "A Cannibal Religion" = 337 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • .
  • ... .. ( "The Virus: A Faith" = 1,317 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... .. .. ( "The Message" = "The Show" = 317 primes )
  • ... .. .. . ( "Know the Cannibal Religion" = 3,317 squares )
  • ... .. .. .. .. ( "A Great Genocide" = 317 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... .. ( "Depopulation: let the people eat eachother" = 3107 squares )
  • "Let the people eat each-other" = 1900 trigonal ( "Chaos" = 19 reduced )
  • "Purge them" = 933 trigonal | 357 primes ( 'Matrix Code' = 357 primes )
  • ... ( "The Infection" = 933 trigonal )
  • ... ( "SARS CoV-2" = 933 trigonal )
Otherwise, if they won't dine on eachothers' flesh due to economic collapse, they will...
  • "Know" = "Killer Injection" = 1000 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • "Know" = "The Security" = 1000 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... .. ( "The Injection" = 969 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • ... .. ( "Business" = 969 trigonal )
  • ... .. .. ( scripted by "Matrix Code" = 969 trigonal )
  • ... ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wj3ZOS5wjc8 ) ['Coronavirus Vaccine Trials']
'Covid-19' is not real, but it is perhaps a metaphor for something real.
Certainly it is a means to an end.
  • "Grand Tyrant" = 1337 trigonal | 1,393 english-ext | 475 primes
  • ... ( "King Returns" = 1337 trigonal )
  • ... ( "King's Return" = 1337 trigonal )
  • ... ( "Crown of Pharaoh" = 1337 jewish-latin-agrippa )
  • "New Count" = 2021 squares
  • ... ( "Dracula" = "To Heal" = "The Man" = 187 primes )
By fighting the 'Covid-19'-engendered outbreak of allegorical (but practical) tyranny, you are fighting a mythological version of me.
Fear not idealogical battle, for...
  • "You are already dead" = 2001 english-extended
A very rare double, for such a long spell, in two related ciphers, :
  • "The Messiah has been put in power" = 2001 english-extended
  • "The Messiah has been put in power" = 2001 jewish-latin-agrippa
  • ... ( "A Quantum Entanglement" = 2001 trigonal )
  • ... .. ... ( "King Arthur" = 2001 squares )
What does it mean?
  1. King Arthur has been appropriated to Christ (or vise versa)
  2. The words of the language constitute Logos (ie. Christ, God)
  3. The earthly tyrants are taking God's Word literally.
  4. The numbers in the spells are telling the government what to do. They see themselves as God's Army. Gematria is the original AI.
  5. Just like my interpretations of the spectrum of the alphabet codes reveal intent and desire, biased by my interpretive abilities, so too the 'Powers-that-be' are deriving Agenda from that portion of the gemstone-monolith they are extracting through whatever methodology and philosophy they've developed to do so. And they are in a position to impose, worldwide, the dictat they think they are receiving (see the C.S Lewis novel, That Hideous Strength, for a literary analogue).
  • "Coronavirus Religion" = 2020 trigonal
  • ... ( "Rulership" = 2020 squares )
The tyranny currently enshrouding the world, is a result of Biblical literalism, becoming a very serious stage play.
The scientific priesthood is perhaps interpreting scripture too literally, and you are going to choose whether you are on the side of God ('The Coronavirus Vaccine') or the Devil ('Covidian Coronavirus').
Are you going to let the Dictionary tell you what to do?
Perhaps you should, after all.
But do you understand the Word?
Q: ?
"A: The World Must Know It" = 888 primes
  • "I am the Almighty" = 474 primes
  • .. ( "The Great Emergence" = 474 primes )
  • ... .. ( "Great Pattern" = 474 primes )
  • ... .. .. ( "Numerology" = 474 primes )
Why Aren’t There More Sci-Fi Movies About Dreams?
In an attempt not to call attention the possibility that:
submitted by Orpherischt to GeometersOfHistory

The Gospel of Mark: Evidence of Petrine Origins (Part 2)

I thought it would be interesting to update my post I made about 6 months ago regarding the Petrine origins of Mark. After argumentation in favor of tradition, I will try to respond to important objections to Petrine origins (from Michael J. Kok, Joel Marcus, as well as criticisms I received last post) that I didn't respond to last time.

Internal evidence

1.1) Peter in Mark:
"Given its essentially smaller extent, the Gospel of Mark mentions Simon Peter more frequently than the other Synoptic Gospels and also more frequently than John, if we leave out the chapter which is critical of Peter in the supplement, John 21. Simon Peter is mentioned 25 times in all. Simon is the first disciple to be mentioned, in 1:16, directly after the proposition in 1:14, 15, and quite unusually his brother Andrew is described as ‘the brother of Simon’ (on this cf. 15:21). At the beginning of Jesus’ ministry, after the call of the first four disciples and the first exorcism in the synagogue of Capernaum, Jesus visits the house of the brothers—a report in the Gospel which falls outside its framework and seems very personal—and heals Simon’s mother-in-law (1:29). In 1:36, unusually, the first group of disciples is described as Σίμων καὶ οἱ μετʼ αὐτοῦ. Subsequently he stands at the head of all the lists of disciples, the Twelve and also the three and the four. All this cannot simply be explained as mere convention; there must be profound historical reasons behind it. As the spokesmen of the Twelve Peter not only acknowledges the messiahship of Jesus but is also sharply rejected by him (8:29, 32f.); he is an embodiment of the disciples’ lack of understanding and their failure. He is the last disciple whom Jesus addresses personally in Gethsemane (14:37), the last who accompanies Jesus as far as the courtyard of the high priest’s palace (14:37), indeed, even more, the last to be mentioned in the Gospel. [...] It can hardly be doubted that Mark is clearly stressing the unique significance of Peter, though without disguising his failure. Might this not be connected with the special origin of his tradition?
Certainly Simon Peter does not appear as a living individual, but as a type; however, this is part of the kerygamtic style of the narrator generally and affects all the people in the Gospel including Jesus himself."
(Hengel, Studies in the Gospel of Mark, p. 50-51)

1.2) Parts of gMark read like a Direct Eyewitness Account (Independent of Papias' tradition)
As C.F.D Moule says (defending Papias' tradition): "Parts of [Mark] do, in fact, read like a direct, eyewitness account..." (C.F.D Moule, The Gospel According to Mark, The Cambridge Bible Commentary, p. 5)
This is exemplified in J.P Meier's work (vol. 2) The Marginal Jew. He thinks the following miracle stories are historical (in the sense of the Gospel of Mark portraying an accurate picture of what people thought occurred):
- The story of the healing of blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46-52) -page 686-690
- The blind man of Bethsaida (Mark 8:22–26)- page 690-694
- Mark 2:1-12 - page 679-680
- The possessed boy (Mark 9:14–29) - page 653-656
- The deaf-mute (Mark 7:31–37)- 711-714
Maurice Casey also thinks that the miracles of Mark 1:23-27; Mark 1:32-34; Mark 3:1-6; Mark 5:21-43, etc, are "literally true," "authentic," and "genuine" (Jesus of Nazareth, 2010, p. 107, 109, 247-248, 268).

1.2.2) The Last Supper (Mark 14:22-24 |1 Cor 11:23-25)
James P. Ware writes: "Two factors make Paul’s testimony invaluable for the historian. First, Paul’s account of the words and actions of Jesus on that night is independent of the Gospels. Second, Paul had extensive and direct contacts with apostles who had shared the table with Jesus on that night. Paul met with Peter for a fifteen-day conference in 37/38, for the specific purpose of hearing his eyewitness testimony to Jesus, and at the Apostolic Council in 48/49, Paul had met with Peter, John, and other apostles. It is historically certain that Paul had the opportunity to verify with Peter and the other eyewitnesses what Jesus had actually said and done on that night. After all, on these occasions Paul not only had extensive discussions with Peter and other members of the Twelve, but, as we have seen, he also shared in the celebration of the Eucharist with them. Paul’s letters provide striking and explosive evidence that, beyond a reasonable historical doubt, the words of Jesus identifying the bread with his body and the wine with his blood go back to the eyewitness testimony of the apostles who reclined with Jesus at table on that night. [...] Moreover, this confirmation of the eyewitness origins of the account of the Last Supper in the canonical gospels (considered alongside the coherence of 1 Cor 15:1–11 with the narrative of Jesus’s death and resurrection in these same gospels) strongly suggests that the narrative of Jesus’s deeds and teaching in the Gospels as a whole has its origins in the eyewitnesses’ testimony of the apostles [along with what has been considered above]."
(James P. Ware, Paul’s Theology in Context, Eerdmans, 2019, p. 269-270)

External Evidence

1) Matthew & Luke (75-95 C.E.)
Hengel writes on page 48 (Studies):
There are yet other reasons for supposing that Petrine authority stands behind the Gospel of Mark.
(1) Mark’s work was used by the historian Luke and also by Matthew, so self-consciously a Christian scribe, in a quite natural way as a guideline. The fidelity with which Matthew reproduces the whole of his Marcan model is particularly striking.
(2) The best explanation of the fact that Mark lived on in the church, although Matthew had taken over about ninety per cent of the material in it, is that the work of Mark was from the beginning bound up with the authority of the name of Peter.
Luke's preface is also important. It's more so the kind of preface historians wrote and shows that Luke is more keen to present his work in the way that literary historians did (see Sean Adams, "Luke's Preface and its Relationship to Greek Historiography: A Response to Loveday Alexander" [2006]). If we take seriously what he says about his sources, he must have considered Mark a good means of access to eyewitness testimony.

2) 1 Peter 5:13 (~85 C.E.)
our sister church in Babylon, chosen together with you, sends you greetings; and so does my son Mark.
The Presbyter John, Papias' informant, may be independent of 1 Peter, which associated Mark with Peter. Adela Y. Collins notes:
Given the common, and probably independent, association of the man with Peter, it is likely that Papias and 1Peter refer to the same person named Mark.
(Adela Yarbro Collins, Mark: A Commentary, Hermeneia, 2007, p. 4)

3) Papias of Hierapolis (95-109 C.E.) & the Presbyter John (70/80-100 C.E.)
Davies and Allison in their Commentary on Matthew (ICC) questions the dismissal of Papias:
In the light of the general considerations adduced and of the work of Kennedy and Kürzinger, the simplistic understanding of Papias which dismisses him out of hand must be questioned if not abandoned.
(Davies and Allison, Matthew, ICC, pp. 16)
So let's question, shall we?
Papias' statements about Mark seems to fit Mark as we have it today. First of all, Papias' critical judgement that "Mark was out of order is similar to Dionysius of Halicarnassus' criticism that Thucydides' history was not in order because it did not begin and end properly (On Thucydides 10; cf. Lucian, True History 47f). Mark does not begin with the recommended topics of birth and ancestry (cf. Theon, Progymnasmaia 8), and it ends abruptly at Mark 16:8. Matthew and Luke also made many linguistic and stylistic improvements on Mark..." (David E. Aune, The New Testament in its Literary Environment, 1987, p. 65-66)
As Hengel writes, Papias complaint that Mark was out of order "does not in fact relate to the literary arrangement, which in the Second Gospel is faultless, but to the historical and chronological arrangement of the material" (Studies in the Gospel of Mark, p. 48)
Second of all, the work of Mark does, in large part, seem like a bunch of anecdotes or little more than such. E.P Sanders & Margaret Davies, Studying the Synoptic Gospels, p. 20 sums it up this point nicely:
The material (in Mark) consists of a series of episodes which concentrates on teaching, disputes and miracles. Only the last week of Jesus’ life appears anything like a connected narrative
Norman Perrin’s What Is Redaction Criticism? claims that the passion narrative in Mark is the most organized, with much of the rest being anecdotes. Eta Linnemann, however, sees the PN as a collection of anecdotes.
One must keep the possibility open that there was an earlier draft of Mark, as Delbert Burkett argues in his book "The Case for Proto-Mark" (2018). The reconstructed draft of Mark would look more like the Gospel of Thomas in structure, in that it was a collection of unconnected chreia.

3.1) Why should we trust Papias?
Papias seems to have historiographical practices in the back of his mind, his tradition seems to be direct from an eyewitness of Jesus, his comments about Mark are very modest, if not even critical, and his location are all relevant to this question.

  • Papias can be regarded as critical of the Gospel of Mark.
"Wrote down accurately whatsoever he remembered".
Where is Peter's supervision establishing a complete 2nd hand apostolic connection? Papias later on also says:
" Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them
Further severing the direct 2nd hand connection.

"It was not, however, in exact order"
"The remark that it is “not in order” implies that it does not measure up to Papias’ standard of what a Gospel should be; nevertheless, he defends it" (Adela Y. Collins. Mark, Hermeneia, p. 4).

"For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him."
Here he is saying Mark is not an eyewitness. It makes little sense to stress such a thing if Papias wasn't interested in genuine tradition. This is more weighty than it appears though, because as Joel Marcus points out on page 18 of his Anchor Yale Bible commentary on Mark 1-8:
Acts 13:13 relates that Mark abandoned Paul for some unknown reason in the middle of a missionary journey, and 15:36-41 describes this desertion as the cause of a subsequent quarrel between Paul and Barnabas, who may have been Mark’s cousin (cf. Col 4:10). Barnabas wanted to take Mark along with them on a later mission, but Paul, because of the earlier experience, refused, and the two missionaries therefore parted acrimoniously.
With this considered, it would not only be appropriate to explicitly say Peter okay'd Mark's work, but it would also be most appropriate to just name the Gospel after Peter himself.
All of this suggest that Papias did not have apologetic interests, or, at least, that was not his primary interest. Adela Y. Collins, citing Hengel, rejects Papian invention of Mark's relation with Peter on these grounds of Papias being critical of Mark in her Hermeneia commentary on Mark, p. 4. Jeff Jay (Mohr Siebeck, 2014, p. 180) likewise finds Hengel's arguments convincing.

  • Papias gets his source from an eyewitness of Jesus. He claims there were two eyewitnesses alive at the time of his writing. Aristion and the The Elder (or presbyter) John:
If, then, any one who had attended on the elders came, I asked minutely after their sayings,--what Andrew or Peter said, or what was said by Philip, or by Thomas, or by James, or by John, or by Matthew, or by any other of the Lord's disciples: which things Aristion and the presbyter John, the disciples of the Lord, say.
Notice the difference between what the members of the 12 said, and what the Elder John and Aristion, disciples of the Lord, still say. Notice also how the members of the twelve are called "disciples of the Lord," just like Aristion and the Presbyter John, as if to equate their authority and eyewitness status.
Irenaeus claims that Papias knew the apostle who leaned on "the bosom of Christ" first hand, and Eusebius contradicts himself when he separates Papias from the elder John, since he also says that Papias asserts that he heard the Presbyter John in person:
Papias [...] moreover asserts that he heard in person Aristion and the presbyter John. Accordingly he mentions them frequently by name, and in his writings gives their traditions.
The context Eusebius cites suggests that this is the same Presbyter John that was spoken of in his preface:
He moreover hands down, in his own writing, other narratives given by the previously mentioned Aristion of the Lord's sayings, and the traditions of the presbyter John. For information on these points, we can merely refer our readers to the books themselves; but now, to the extracts already made, we shall add, as being a matter of primary importance, a tradition regarding Mark who wrote the Gospel, which he [Papias] has given in the following words]: And the presbyter said this. Mark having become the interpreter of Peter...
This point about Papias' source can hardly be overstated.

  • Papias has historiographical tendencies.
David E Aune raised the possibility that Papias thought of himself as a historian:
Papias reflects a considerable degree of rhetorical sophistication (Kürzinger 1983: 43-67; Black 1989: 31-41), and suggests that he thought of himself as a historian (Aune 1978: 79-82; 1987: 66-67).
(David E. Aune, 'Prolegomena to the Study of Oral Traditions in the Hellenistic World', in Henry Wansborough (ed.), Jesus and the Oral Gospel Tradition (JSNTSup 64; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991), p. 81).
Hengel notes that:
"The positive statements, that as far as Mark remembered the teaching of Peter he set this down on paper ἀκριβῶς, and that he took trouble not to leave out or falsify anything that he had heard, are conventional in character: similar formulae appear almost as stereotypes in the prologues of historians.1
1 For its frequency see e.g. also Plutarch, Lycurgus, 6.4; 13.2; 25.4; Theopompus, FGrHist 115 T 31 = Photius bibl. 176 p.121a 35; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Thuc. 5 (LCL Vol. 465, p.472) and 8 (p.478), on Thucydides: πλείστην ἐποιήσατο πρόνοιαν, οὔτε προστιθεὶς τοῖς πράγμασιν οὐδὲν ὃ μὴ δίκαιον οὔτε ἀφαιρῶν, οὐδὲ ἐνεξουσιάζων τῇ γραφῇ.
(Martin Hengel, Studies in the Gospel of Mark, p. 49)
Furthermore, Papias' criticism that Mark was not in order "was a rhetorical term meaning "not artistically arranged." Portions of the historical preface of Papias' work survive complete with references to sources and method in accordance with historiographal convention (Eusebius, Church History, 3.39-2-4; 15; note the formal parallels with Luke 1:1-4). The reveals Papias' familiarity with the rhetorical conventions of Hellenistic historiography. His explicit preference for oral over written tradition (Eusebius, Church History, 3.39.3-4) typifies ancient historians from Herodotus to Plutarch (cf. Plutarch, Demosthenes 2.1)." (David E. Aune, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 1987, p. 67)
See this article for more on this (2014): https://www.jstor.org/stable/43665438?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

  • Papias' location
We should also note the relevance of his geographical location in Hierapolis. Vernon Bartlet explains:
Hierapolis, of which he became “bishop” or chief local pastor, stood at the meeting-point of two great roads: one running east and west, between Antioch in Syria and Ephesus, the chief city of “Asia,” the other south-east to Attalia in Pamphylia and north-west to Smyrna. There Papias was almost uniquely placed for collecting traditions coming direct from the original home of the Gospel both before his own day and during it, as well as from Palestinian Christian leaders settled in Asia (a great centre of the Jewish Dispersion).
(V. Bartlet, “‘Papias’ ‘Exposition’: it’s date and contents, p. 16-17: 20-22)

4) Irenaeus (175-185 C.E.)
Irenaeus' report of Mark writing after Peter's death (as per the vast majority of scholarship) makes him a very relevant source, despite his lateness (especially if we are to trust his hearing of Polycarp). Indeed, it seems like a huge coincidence, at the very least, that contemporary critical scholarship places Mark's composition around 70 C.E., with Peter's death around 64-68 C.E., cohering with Irenaeus' report of Mark being written after Peter's death perfectly.
Some call into question Peter's death in Rome during the Neronic persecution, but not for very good reasons. There is ample independent evidence of Peter's execution in Rome during the Neronic persecution around 64-68 C.E.:

4.1) 1 Clement (90-100 C.E.)
1 Clement indicates that Peter was martyred. Timothy Barnes writes: "The letter [then] continues by describing the deaths of numerous others besides Peter and Paul who are presented as having perished with them:
Because of jealousy women were persecuted as Danaids and Dircae and suffered terrible and unholy indignities. But they confidently completed the race of faith and, though weak in body, received a noble reward.
The reference to “Danaids and Dircae” (Δαναΐδες καὶ Διρκαί) has appeared so puzzling to many scholars that it has sometimes been emended away. [...] The problematic words have now been explained by Edward Champlin as conveying a specific allusion to Nero’s “fatal charades” (Champlin, Nero, pp. 123–25). Why Danaids? Because the temple of Apollo on the Palatine, dedicated in 28 bce, had been destroyed in the fire of Rome, and the portico surrounding the sacred area in front of the temple contained statues of the fifty mythical daughters of King Danaus. Why Dircae? The mythical Dirce, wife of the king of Thebes, was tied by her hair to a bull, which then trampled and gored her to death. One of the buildings burned down in 64 was the amphitheater in the Campus Martius built by Statilius Taurus in 26 bce, known as the amphitheater of Taurus or the amphitheater of the Bull (Cassius Dio 62.18.2).
The Letter of the Church of Rome to the Church of Corinth thus states [...] that both Peter and many women perished in Nero’s entertainments in 64."
(Timothy D. Barnes, "Another Shall Gird Thee," in Peter in Early Christianity, edited by Helen K. Bond, Larry W. Hurtado, 2015, p. 91-92).

4.2) John 21:18-19 (90-100 C.E.)
"The allusion to Peter’s execution in John’s Gospel cannot refer to a death by crucifixion because it states that Peter died clothed, not naked. The allusion dovetails perfectly with what Tacitus reports about the emperor Nero’s execution of Christians in Rome in the year 64." (Barnes: p. 80). See p. 77-86 for more on this point.

4.3) The Ascension of Isaiah ("End of the First Century")
Timothy Barnes writes: "The Ascension of Isaiah [...] contains a passage in which the Old Testament prophet Isaiah predicts that one of Jesus' twelve original disciples will be killed by Nero:
Now, therefore, Hezekiah and Josab my son, these are the days of the completion of the world. And after it is completed, Beliar will descend, the great ruler, the king of this world, which he has ruled ever since it existed. He will descend from his firmament in the form of a man, a lawless emperor, a matricide—this is the king of this world—and he will persecute the plant which the Twelve Apostles of the Beloved will have planted, and one of the Twelve will be delivered into his hands. This ruler will come in the form of that emperor, and with him will come all the powers of this world, and they will obey him in all that he desires. (4.1-4)
Barnes writes: "The reference to Nero is clear, and Champlin’s discussion of Nero’s posthumous reputation duly quotes the passage. No Roman emperor other than Nero killed his mother, still less was any other Roman emperor famous precisely for killing his mother. Moreover, this passage of the Ascension of Isaiah not only alludes to Nero’s persecution of the Christians of Rome in 64 but also reflects the belief, widespread in the East in the decades after his death in 68, that Nero would reappear on earth restored to life again and usher in the end of the world. Historical considerations, including this allusion to Nero redivivus, indicate a date “about the end of the first century” for the composition of this section of the work (3.13–4.22). Peter is the obvious and inevitable candidate." (Barnes: p. 92-93)

4.4) The Apocalypse of Peter (80-135 C.E.)
Look Peter, I have manifested to you and expounded all this [after the last judgement after the destruction of the world]. And go into the city that rules over the west and drink the cup that I promised you at the hand of the son of the one who is in Hades, so that his destruction may have a beginning and you, the receiver of the promise... (14:4-6)
Barnes writes: "Presumably, "the son of the one who is in Hades" means "the son of the devil" and denotes Nero. More significant, the passage alludes to Jesus' private prayer in the garden of Gethsemane that the cup be taken from him (Mark 13:36, 39), so that "the cup that I promised you" must refer to the future death of Peter: Peter will go to Rome, the "city that rules over the west," where he will drink the cup promised to him by Jesus; that is, he will be executed as a follower of Christ" (Barnes: p. 94-95)

4.5) A Petrine shrine dating around 160 C.E. in Vatican hill
Barnes writes: "There is ample archaeological, liturgical, and literary evidence for a cult of Peter on the Vatican Hill from the second half of the second century onward. From this varied evidence it is clear that the Christians of Rome a century after Peter’s death firmly believed that Peter had died in Rome, since a shrine was built around 160 on the Vatican Hill over the place where either Peter’s body or at least some relic of Peter was believed to be." (Barnes: p. 88).

Summary of Irenaeus: Evidence has it that Peter died around 64-68 C.E. Irenaeus very likely claims that Mark wrote after Peter died. Critical scholarship has confirmed indeed that Mark was written fairly shortly after Peter's death (~70 C.E.). Thus, the coherence of Irenaeus' tradition to the conclusions of critical scholarship regarding Mark makes him reliable on this specific Gospel, in spite of his date. This accuracy probably indicates that Irenaeus draws upon independent tradition.


Objection #1: Peter in Mark
According to Michael J. Kok:
"Scholars too excuse the texts where the Twelve come across in a less than flattering light, such as their constant misunderstandings (4:13, 40-41; 6:51-52; 7:17-18; 8:4, 14-21, 31-33; 9:10, 32-34, 38-41; 10:35-45; 14:4-5), the bold request of James and John for seats of honor (10:35-40), the rebuke of Peter as the mouthpiece of Satan (8:33), or Peter’s threefold denials (14:66-72), by crediting it as a testament to apostolic humility.
The problem is that Mark does not just document the Twelve’s occasional foibles. Their extraordinary powers of incomprehension—worrying over bread after Jesus miraculously multiplied it twice (8:16-21) or caught off-guard in Gethsemane despite three straightforward passion predictions (8:31-32; 9:31-32; 10:32-34)—goes beyond reasonable miscommunication and borders on parody. Their lapses in judgment are retained in Synoptic parallels (Matt 16:5-12; Matt 16:21-22; Matt 17:22-23/Luke 9:44-45; Matt 20:17-23/Luke 18:31-34), but Mark alone has their hearts collectively hardened (6:52; 8:17) like Pharaoh (Exod 7:3, 13-14, 22; 8:19; 9:12, 35; 10:20, 27; 11:10; 14:4) or Jesus’ foes (Mark 3:5). Peter’s denials are not suppressed, but Matthew 16:17-19, Luke 22:32, and the Johannine epilogue (21:15-19) balance it out by explicitly re-affirming Peter’s leadership of the post-Easter community.
At any rate, Peter, the Twelve, and the family of Jesus are all represented ambivalently in the narrative and it is hard to imagine that its author worked at the behest of one of the Jerusalem Pillars.
(Michael J. Kok, The Gospel on the Margins, 2015, kindle location 1442-1476)
Joel Marcus likewise rejects Mark for it's "anti-petrine" stance.
Perhaps Kok will also favor us with another book, First Corinthians on the Margins, where he shows that this letter could not have likely been written by Paul, because of its strong anti-Pauline polemic (his "weakness and fear and great trembling," 2:4, "the least of the apostles," 15:9, etc.). Why does Paul talk this way? He highlights his own weakness, in order to glorify the transforming power and grace of God (see 2 Corinthians 10-13). Does Kok not know about the revolutionary Christian conception of humility, and the Christian conception that "he who boasts must boast in the Lord"? This is why the portrayal of Peter in Mark is one more evidence that the basis of Mark is the eyewitness account of Peter (see "Peter in Mark" at the top of the post). Only Peter would recount the events in this unvarnished way. We should be very weary of retrojecting our modern conception of what is "beyond reasonable miscommunication and borders on parody" onto theirs.
Furthermore, many of the passages cited by Kok don't really paint a picture of the Evangelist portraying Peter (or the disciples) as negative. In fact, the Evangelist may be attempting to do the opposite for Peter specifically (see "Conclusion of Objection #1").

- Mark 8:33
John R. Markley writes: "Fourth Ezra may provide a helpful analogy for understanding Peter's rebuke of Jesus, and Jesus' subsequent rebuke of Peter. In this apocalypse, Ezra questions whether God is just since the righteous suffer at the hands of the unrighteous. Occasionally, Ezra presumes to possess a point of view that is superior to the one represented by his angelic mediator, Uriel. For this reason, Uriel takes a biting tone with Ezra at points. He claims that a human like Ezra cannot understand the ways of God (4 Ezra 4:2, 10-11, 21; 5:35-37, 40); he questions whether Ezra believes that he loves Israel more than God does (5:33; cf. 4:34; 8:47a); and he is critical of Ezra for considering the present rather than what is yet to come (7:15). When Ezra queries whether if the fate of the wicked is just, Uriel sharply rebukes him: You are not a better judge than God, or wiser than the Most High!" (7:19). Uriel's antagonistic tone must be interpreted against the backdrop of the glowing statements made about Ezra elsewhere in the apocalypse (e.g. 6:32-33; 7:67-77; 8:47b--54; 10:38-40. 55-58; 13:53-56), the direct comparison of him with Moses (14:1-6, 37-48), and his removal from the earth before death (14:9). In light of these, it does not seem likely that the apocalypse reflects an antagonistic or ambivalent of Ezra himself; rather, it seems that Uriel's tone is directed towards Ezra's human point of view, which is fundamentally different from the divine point of view that is required to grapple faithfully with the problems with gentile hegemony, sin, and divine justice.
Ezra's human perspective is continually contrasted with the divine perspective that the angel Uriel discloses, much like Peter's rebuke of Jesus' passion prediction is designed to sharply contrast his human perspective with the divine perspective Jesus discloses. Indeed, just as the angle Uriel criticized Ezra's limited human perspective, Jesus says that Peter is thinking "human things," rather than "divine things.
The main purpose of this episode, therefore, is probably not to use Peter as an example of faulty discipleship. Instead, Peter performs the somewhat stereotyped function of a seer, who voices the human perspective that the divine revelation is designed to correct"
(John R. Markley, "Reassessing Peter's Imperception in Synoptic Traditions" in Peter in Early Christianity, edited by Helen K. Bond , Larry W. Hurtado, 2015, p. 107-108)
This analysis fits in very nicely with Hengel's point of view above.

- The Failure of Peter and the Disciples to Understand (i.e. Mark 9:5-6; 7:17; 10:35-45; 14:4-5, etc)
The failure to understand is a "motif that is common in apocalyptic literature: human imperception in the face of divinely revealed mysteries. In apocalyptic texts, human seers are regularly portrayed as being profoundly confused by the otherworldly realities they observe during visions are epiphanies. The venerable figure of Daniel, for example, cannot perceive the significance of his visions apart from divine explanation, despite his unrivaled qualities of wisdom and understanding. In Daniel 8:27, after Daniel has received an explanation of his vision, he comments that he did not understand it. Similarly, following the historical review of chapters 10-12, Daniel says "I heard but could not understand" (12:8). Daniel is therefore portrayed as expressing confusion and imperception when confronted with eschatological mysteries revealed to him, but there is no indication that his confusion is designed to reflect negativity on him. It merely plays into the duality between God's plan for the righteous, expressed as otherworldly mysteries, and the ability of finite human such as Daniel to grasp this ominous plan." (Markley: p. 107)
Markley also goes over similar confusion texts in 4 Ezra (cf. 10:30, 35, etc), whereby the seer is confused by divine mysteries, and more in his book Peter - Apocalyptic Seer, p. 78-113.

- The Gospel of Mark Leaves Peter Unredeemed
But this is just false. First of all, even Michael J. Kok thinks that Mark hints at Peter's reconciliation when he says:
If not for the hints of reconciliation at 14:28 and 16:7, the last time the Twelve appear in the narrative is on a note of their utter failure. (Kindle location 1468)
Furthermore, "the reference to Peter's weeping [Mark 14:72] to some extent cancels his previous behavior as it indicates his repentance and therefore his re-acceptance" (Ernest Best, Peter in the Gospel According to Mark, JSTOR, 1978, p. 554).
Lastly, the silence of the women (potentially leaving Peter unredeemed by reason of the angelic message not reaching Peter) is moot, as Adela Y. Collins writes:
Their silence is a result of their being struck with awe at the extraordinary events. The tension between the commission given the women by the angel in v. 7* and the silence of the women in v. 8* is due to the depiction of the overwhelming effect of the overall experience on the women. The text does not address the question whether the women eventually gave the disciples and Peter the message. It focuses rather on the numinous and shocking character of the event of Jesus’ resurrection from the dead..
(Adela Y. Collins, Mark: A Commentary, Hermeneia, 2007, p. 799)
Ernest Best thinks Mark 16:7 was sufficient, apart from Peter's weeping, for Peter's reconciliation (see "Conclusion to Objection #1"), especially considering that Mark 16:7 seems redactional.

- Conclusion to Objection #1
Ernest Best looks at Markan redactional tendencies from the tradition the Evangelist held, and actually concludes that the Markan author smoothed over the tradition which held Peter's failures! It may just be that our Marcus was a bit uncomfortable with Peter's humility he displayed in his tradition. Best concludes:
Where Peter appears in the tradition in a bad light Mark normally lifts the strain off him by associating other disciples with him; the only exception is the story of the denial where Mark may have increased the amount of material about him, perhaps turning the single denial into a threefold; but it is by no means clear that he did this in order to vilify Peter, since he probably also emphasized the flight of all the disciples. There may also be another factor: Peter's failure may be heightened in order to bring out the contrast in behavior to Jesus. Where Mark has himself introduced Peter he either presents him in a good light or, at least, neutrally; if the reference in 16:7 is Markan then this is an obvious attempt to correct the impression left by the denial. Thus there is no reason to conclude that Mark was attacking the historical Peter.
More generally, to ask the question about Mark's treatment of Peter may imply a view of Mark's purpose as ultimately biographical. But Mark does not set out to tell his community about Peter for Peter's sake but for the sake of the community. Failure occasioned by pressure from outside the community must have been all too common; if Peter's failure was eliminated he could not be seen as the proto-penitent
(Ernest Best, Peter in the Gospel According to Mark, JSTOR, 1978, p. 557-558)
And finally, Helen K. Bond writes:
The figure of Peter has been a favorite topic in many recent literary studies of Mark’s Gospel, with the prevailing opinion nowadays suggesting that the evangelist is not really so negative toward Jesus’ closest disciple as an earlier generation might have supposed.
(Helen K. Bond, "Was Peter behind Mark’s Gospel?" in Peter in Early Christianity, edited by Helen K. Bond Larry W. Hurtado, 2015, p. 49)

Objection #2:
According to Michael J. Kok, Papias does not seem to have historiographical tendenciesd (partially) because:
"Papias relates extravagant details about the grotesque death of Judas, a resuscitation of a corpse in his own day, and the miraculous drinking of poison with no ill effects (Hist. Eccl. 3.39.9) that Lucian would detest as myths." (The Gospel on the Margins, 2015, Kindle Location 1360)
Papias also records a tale about John the disciple speaking about "the days [...] in which vines shall grow, having each ten thousand branches, and in each branch ten thousand twigs, and in each true twig ten thousand shoots, and in every one of the shoots ten thousand clusters, and on every one of the clusters ten thousand grapes [...] And when any one of the saints shall lay hold of a cluster, another shall cry out, 'I am a better cluster, take me.'"
The talking grape is prophetic hyperbole. It’s not much different than a camel going through the eye or a needle, or straining a gnat and swallowing a camel, or a Jesus saying: "if they were quiet, the very stones would cry out." Talking stones! I don't see how this affects Papias' reliability.
Regarding Judas, what Papias actually wrote is a problem, because there is more than one version of what he said. But the blowing up business isn’t really any different than Acts 1, is it? Acts 1:18: he burst open in the middle. The weird part is the bloating. It does sound like a legend to me. It was just someone’s way of making Judas look horrible. It's not like he cites a source for this "tradition" like he does with Mark, and as we saw that the informant regarding Mark was an eyewitness of Jesus.
An ingestion of snake poison with no ill effects is also recorded in Acts, and Luke-Acts almost certainly is following historiographical practices (just look at his preface, for instance).
Luke also records the resuscitation of a corpse. Note also that Papias' source for the resuscitation of a corpse was different than that of Mark's Gospel. We should not put all of Papias' traditions under one blanket.

Objection #3:
Why doesn't Mark just say that Peter was his source? Many respected historians relayed their eyewitness sources in their writings.
These are accomplished literary writers we are talking about here. Mark writes on a much more popular style (see E.P Sanders' Studying the Synoptic Gospels) than many of the respected historians whose works have seen survived today. Unfortunately we don't have much in the way of biographies that belong to the same popular literary level as our Gospels, because what got preserved of ancient literature was the stuff that people most admired as literary works.
As noted by Adela Y. Collins in her Hermeneia commentary on Mark (p. 524), Mark was meant to be read aloud. For the author of Mark to say that Peter was his source, Mark would have to speak in the first person directly addressing his readers. This interrupts the flow of narrative and intrudes into the reader's experience of the narrative.
Luke's preface is also important, as pointed out above.

Objection #4:
Joel Marcus rejects a link with Peter. One reason is that Mark does not appear to be any closer to Peter than the other evangelists and that Mark's passages lack the kind of detail one would expect from the reminiscences of an eyewitness. He writes:
"If, for example, the first Markan narrative that features Peter, the story of his call in 1:16–18, were a genuine personal reminiscence, we should expect more details, such as an explanation of what it was about Jesus that made Peter and Andrew drop everything to follow him." (Mark 1-8, p. 23)
"This, however, is to confuse a “genuine reminiscence” (in the sense of an event told for its own sake) with a story retold as part of an ancient bios. Peter may well have had a clear recollection of the first time he set eyes on Jesus, of the tremendous impact it made on him. Perhaps he remembered other strange, inconsequential details as we sometimes do in connection with important events—but none of these details would have been relevant to Mark’s biographical enterprise. The evangelist was not interested in supplying his audience with details of Peter’s own call experience, but in raising the call to discipleship to a level of abstraction that would include his audience, and emphasizing to them (whatever Peter’s own call experience might have been like) that following Jesus required immediate and wholehearted commitment. The Gospel is not a biography of Peter, but of Jesus. Thus inconsequential details concerning Peter would simply be out of place."
(Helen K. Bond, "Was Peter behind Mark’s Gospel?" in Peter in Early Christianity, edited by Helen K. Bond Larry W. Hurtado, 2015, p. 56)

Helen K. Bond holds to a Petrine connection with our gMark (Ibid, 61),
submitted by Bohrbrain to AcademicBiblical

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