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/r/QOTSA Official Band of the Week 21: ALL THEM WITCHES

Let me ask you a question. If you haven’t listened to Kyuss, are you even a QotSA fan?
I suppose it is possible. Some people can be Peter Gabriel fans without being Genesis fans, or Ozzy Osbourne fans without being Black Sabbath fans, or Audioslave fans without being fans of Soundgarden and Rage Against the Machine. And I am pretty sure that there are Foo Fighters fans out there who are not fans of Nirvana -- probably because Foo Fighters are a way better band than Nirvana.
Yeah, I said it. Come at me.
But QotSA without Kyuss? I can’t see it. Maybe I am biased because I just love the low desert sound. Heavy riffs, lots of fuzz ,and earthquake-inducing bass are my jam. That’s why I love Self-Titled so much and why I feel 18 A.D. is chronically underappreciated as a song, and it is an absolute crime that they don’t play it live.
I know I am not alone in this. Kyuss were a genre defining band that created what we now call Stoner Rock. Bands like Valley of the Sun, King Buffalo, Truckfighters, Stonerror, Sleep, Clutch, Mother Engine, Mondo Generator, Duel, and Fu Manchu all continue to write and perform Stoner Rock today. If you haven’t taken a dive into this scene, I totally envy the fact that you get to experience this music for the first time.
Today we are going to check out a great Stoner Rock band that just dropped a new album a few weeks ago. They have more fuzz than a five day backwoods fishing trip. They have bigger jams than Smucker’s, Welch’s, and Kraft combined. They will make your one-hitter hit a home run. You are gonna want to roll down the windows of your low riding caddy and drive all night through the desert.
Yep, you are in for a treat. This week’s band is ALL THEM WITCHES.
About Them
You are familiar with the Hero’s journey, right? That is the literary trope where our protagonists leave their comfortable little world, are mentored through a series of increasing challenges, find themselves at a low point, overcome obstacles, and return home greater and wiser than before?
As with every story of heroes, our group of adventurers from Nashville Tennessee went on a truly epic journey. Drummer Robby Staebler had just arrived in Nashville from Portland, Oregon and was looking for some buds to start a band. He had rolled up at his new home in the back of a moving van, because his mom had decided that he was just not good enough to ride up front. His dad was conspicuously absent. After meeting a sketchy male role model with a Smashmouth-esque chinstrap beard, he was forced by this would-be academic to enslave a small animal. He then ran away from home to engage in a series of escalating gladiatorial fights for money.
Wait. Shit. That is the plot of Pokemon Emerald, not the story of All Them Witches. Damn free emulators. Such a massive time sink.
Mudkip for the win. You are damn right I’m bringing back that meme.
Where was I? I kinda got distracted there. Oh yeah. Robby Staebler was looking for a band. He met guitarist Ben McLeod in a bar (remember when we could meet people in bars?) and then met aspiring drama student Charles Michael Parks Jr. when he took a job at “a corporate hippie store”. Parks Jr. turned those theatre aspirations into being a great frontman and bass player. The band rounded out their membership with Allan Van Cleave, a friend of Staebler, on keys. All Them Witches took the inspiration for their name from the set-prop book entitled All of Them Witches in the 1968 Roman Polanski Spawn-of-Satan movie Rosemary’s Baby.
Let’s get something else out of the way: Yes, I said Nashville Tennesee. The Buckle of the Bible Belt. The Protestant Vatican. The Athens of the South. The Hot Chicken Capital. Yes, the self-proclaimed Music City is perennially associated with Country music, Gospel music and, to a lesser extent, contemporary Christian Rock. There is a Jazz scene. There are active Barbershop groups. The city is the home of the Grand Ole Opry and the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum. Hee Haw was shot there. It is a city that, until a few decades ago, still had strong ties to the Confederacy.
How the hell did a Stoner Rock band start there?
Quickly, that’s how.
The band were officially formed in February of 2012 (remember when that year was supposed to be the end of the world? C’mon, Mayans, if you really meant 2020 why didn’t you just say 2020?) and released their first album, Our Mother Electricity, on December 6th, 2012. Being from Nashville, the album was of course released on the German heavy psych label Elektrohasch Schallplatten. So just so we’re clear: Stoner Rock was born in the California Desert and then adopted by a band from Tennessee and released on a German label. I just have one question: Where the fuck is Carmen Sandiego?
To be fair, All Them Witches characterized their debut sound as being ‘psychedelta rock’...which kinda sounds like a knock off version of an X-Man. The album is full of heavy jams. Listeners can expect to hear the influence of the blues mixed with deep fuzz and highly compressed vocals. Until it Unwinds is over eight minutes of rolling swagger that will have you thinking about 50 Million Year Trip. Heavy/Like a Witch has some definite Stone Temple Pilots vibes and is a great opener. The true standout on the album is The Urn, a dark and twisted fable that is really the antithesis of everything one associates with music in the Bible Belt. The album was a declaration of war on everything cheery and pleasant to be found in the Music City, and a bold statement from a band finding its feet.
The band were not entirely happy with the production on Our Mother Electricity. In order to assert themselves, they went ultra low-tech. The released the Extra Pleasant EP in July of 2013. It was recorded on a 4-track cassette tape using only two microphones. Production-wise, it is a step back - but when you listen to it on headphones, you can appreciate the raw talent. It is a weird low-fi follow up and almost like listening to a debut rather than the first album. Listening to this EP is like hearing a Pink Floyd cover band’s first original songs that have been mashed up with Clutch and recorded on an iPhone 4. Even with those limitations, tracks like Sludger will stay with you and are worth your time.
While their first two releases had some modest success, All Them Witches really did not get widespread acclaim until the release of their second full album, Lightning at the Door, in late 2013. Every band that has ever released anything on Bandcamp wants to experience the kind of underground word-of-mouth sensation that this album generated. The album is part-concept, part-thematic and has narrative threads that tie it together (e.g. the two tracks The Marriage of Coyote Woman and The Death of Coyote Woman - clearly, not a happy ending for the titular character). If you loved Songs for the Deaf and Rated R, then this is the album that you are going to want to start with as an introduction to the band. It has some amazing tracks - Funeral for a Great Drunken Bird and When God Comes Back are great on their own - but it is best experienced as a complete album. Do yourself a favor: Find a great set of headphones and listen to it front to back. You’ll thank me.
How do you follow up a concept album that gives you unforeseen popularity and access to a broader audience? Do you, say, create a dark follow-up to it, and find the title for that album in a lyric from a hidden track?
Who the fuck would make a weird choice like that?
All Them Witches took a different route and decided to instead channel their inner Beck. The Effervescent EP came out in June of 2014. There are only two songs, each clocking in at about 25 minutes long. Side A is Effervescent and Side B is Tnecsevreffe. The EP is a Rorschach blot of instrumental music in multiple movements that channels incredible musicality and allows you to superimpose your own meaning on it. It is like listening to Pink Floyd and Led Zeppelin have a baby, if that baby was raised listening to coyotes howl and instrumental Kyuss tracks all mashed together on one continuous loop. Fans of the German band Mother Engine will hear definite parallels. The weird thing about Effervescent is its length: it is hard to think of it as an EP, because it is 50 minutes of music. But it has only two tracks, so it can’t really be an album...can it?
Yes, before you start in on me, I know about Sleep’s Dopesmoker. That 2003 one-song album may also have influenced our boys from the Hee Haw city.
So after playing around with longer and more intricate multiple-movement songs, it is no surprise that All Them Witches dropped a 57 minute ‘EP’ in 2015. A Sweet Release hit the airwaves on April 20. Yep, 4/20. No, that was not a coincidence. No, I’m not going to explain that to you. If you gotta ask, you’ll never know. Yes, if anyone doubted at all that this band was a Stoner Rock band, fuck all y’all, the release date is proof. Tracks on the EP range in length from almost 2 and a half minutes to over 24 minutes. It is a spacey, laid-back jam that is at times hypnotic and far-reaching, and equally urgent and immersive.
I’m not saying that you need to be high to appreciate this EP. I’m just saying that listening to Interstate Bleach Party and Howdy Hoodee Slank in the right…mood ...can make you see the color Octarine.
Lightning at the Door and Effervescent cemented All Them Witches as true underground masters of Stoner Rock. 2015’s Dying Surfer Meets His Maker saw them broaden their musical scope and refine their sound. The album (yes, it is an album this time) leans heavily into the Blues with layers of grunge and psychedelia and celtic strings and even harmonicas. (Side note: the last time I heard harmonicas used in Stoner Rock was never. So good on them. I will say this: the hook brings you back.) All these influences were mixed in one big bowl and smoked out the top of a giant bong for full effect. It is at the same time a more technical and more mellow album. Stand out tracks on the album are the hard hitting Dirt Preachers and El Centro and This is Where it Falls Apart.
All Them Witches found themselves touring the small club circuit and then playing bigger and bigger stages. They got invited to festivals like Bonnaroo and were greeted by enthusiastic fans (and clouds of fragrant haze). There is nothing like performing live to hone a band’s edge. By the time Sleeping Through the War dropped in 2017, the boys had been together, touring and recording, for five years. The album is tightly crafted by a tight band. There are even guest vocalists to add texture and harmony to the songs. Less mellow than its predecessor, the album roars right from the opening track - Bulls - through to the closing track, Guess I’ll Go Live On The Internet. 3-5-7 is probably one of the best Stoner Rock tracks you will come across. And when you recognize the tonal mirroring of Am I Going Up with Alabaster, you feel smarter than you actually are. Lots of albums have made me bang my head; very few have made me stop and recognize the musical structure that underpins the melody. That is Tool-level composition right there. Long story short: this is an album put out by a band in its prime and it does not disappoint.
If you remember what happened in English class, what follows the apotheosis for the main character is the falling action or denouement. All Them Witches had peaked with Sleeping Through the War and had nowhere to go but down. The 2018 Lost and Found EP was four (comparatively) short covers and remixes that seemed more like leftovers than an actual meal. Sure, leftovers can be tasty, but All Them Witches fans were used to getting new and better breakfasts, luncheons and dinners and instead got last Tuesday’s reheated bean burrito. Which is fine, if you dig burritos, but it is still not as good as a nice, juicy steak.
Goddam, is anyone else craving a meal? Why is it so smoky in here, and why do I want to eat burritos and Doritos?
Hehe. Dorito. Burrito.
Fuck. I need to focus. Moving on.
Any fan of the band could tell that something was up, and that Lost and Found was at best a B-Side. It soon became evident that something really was up. Keyboardist (and part-time violinist) Allan Van Cleave was out of the band. This left a gigantic Ray Manzarek-esque hole in the band’s sound. The breakup was not a good one, and left some scars.
Van Cleave was replaced by Jonathan Draper, and the band released the album ATW in Sept of 2018. Sonically, the album is sound, but seems to lack the spark of greatness that was in everything prior to Lost and Found. The technical skills are there - Draper knows his way around a keyboard, and that is clearly evident on Fishbelly 86 Onions - but it kinda (IMHO) sounds more like an amazing All Them Witches cover album than an actual effort by the band. It is kinda like Bryan Cranston dressing up in a Walter White mask. It is super close to previous efforts but just not the same, somehow. 1st vs. 2nd is a jam and so is Diamond, and the album has an unrelenting energy, but it is just a bit off the mark.
The band must have felt something similar. Draper was turfed from the group just a month after ATW dropped. Instead of trying to recreate the four member sound that had anchored them since John Cusak and Amanda Peet’s landmark film, they decided to choose a new direction entirely.
When bands shuffle their lineup, it tends to be adding members (like our very own ancient monarchs) or replacing members. Very few bands successfully delete members. Well, OK, that band from Liverpool did successfully delete Stuart Sutcliffe from its lineup and they went on to do alright. Genesis made a successful transition from a 4-piece to a 3-piece when Peter Gabriel left. Oasis got 100% better when Liam Gallagher and his ego both quit. But losing an integral part of your sound - and the keyboards were central in so many songs - would be a tough transition. The band’s fanbase-not-so secretly worried that the lack of keyboardist would spell the end. Thankfully, we were wrong.
All Them Witches took that leap. Digging into their nomenclature and lore, they released a single as a three-piece band on Halloween of 2019. 1X1 is an angry, powerful Stoner Rock jam with a video that is an homage to Jesus Christ Pose. It is a Kyuss-meets-Tool-meets-Led Zeppelin-at-a-Black-Sabbath-concert song that made everyone simultaneously applaud and exhale.
They were back.
The new LP Nothing as the Ideal just dropped on September 4th, 2020. It is a leaner, meaner iteration of the band that seems to have lost no momentum. Everything resonates with power. Saturnine and Iron Jaw evokes Tony Iommi riffage. The Children of Coyote Women is a direct callback to the album Lightning at the Door. 41 is a thumping tune and Enemy of my Enemy is a relentless sonic attack. But most importantly, we get to see All Them Witches evolve as a band but hang on to the core of their sound.
You’re never going to hear this band on your local top 40 radio station. You might catch them on College radio, if the DJ is cool enough. Like most great music nowadays, you have to go looking to find it. But when you do find it, what an amazing experience it can be.
So now you have completed your Hero’s Journey (Twist! It turns out that YOU were the hero all along!) According to the trope, you are now older and wiser because you have ventured out of your comfortable little world.
Now prove me right, hero. Go listen and awaken your inner stoner. And bring me some goddamn Doritos. Cool Ranch for the win.
Links to QOTSA
Josh has included All Them Witches on The Alligator Hour and is known to be a fan of the band.
A recent review of Nothing as the Ideal stated that Charles Michael Parks Jr.’s voice was “Fantastic...like a bassier Josh Homme”.
More importantly, All Them Witches are a Stoner Rock band...and Josh literally invented the genre. It is clear that while the band has grown and evolved and are taking themselves to new places, their music has been inspired by that downtuned, low desert Kyuss groove.
Their Music
Until it Unwinds
Heavy/Like a Witch
The Urn
Extra Pleasant EP
The Marriage of Coyote Woman
Funeral for a Great Drunken Bird
When God Comes Back -- Live and badass
Effervescent
Interstate Bleach Party
Howdy Hoodee Slank
Dirt Preachers -- Live in 2016
El Centro
This is Where it Falls Apart
Bulls
3-5-7
Fishbelly 86 Onions
1st vs. 2nd
Diamond
Under Pressure -- yes, that song.
Open Passageways
Diamond
1X1
The Children of Coyote Woman
Enemy of my Enemy
Show Them Some Love
/AllThemWitches
Previous Posts
Tool
Alice in Chains
King Gizzard and the Lizard Wizard
Rage Against the Machine
Soundgarden
Run the Jewels
Royal Blood
Arctic Monkeys
Ty Segall
Eagles of Death Metal
Them Crooked Vultures
Led Zeppelin
Greta Van Fleet
Ten Commandos
Screaming Trees
Sound City Players
Iggy Pop
Mastodon
The Strokes
Radiohead
submitted by House_of_Suns to qotsa

Pojok sharing IT: Virtualization/Containerization

Goal saya sebenarnya cuma mau buat test keyboard baru dengan cara buat artikel Ah, ini buat sharing saja, target yang ngebaca ini utamanya fresh graduate yang backgroundnya IT dan lagi ngga ngapa-ngapain, bisa dicoba saja praktekkan apa yang ada di thread ini di laptop masing-masing. Ngga menjamin tulisan ini bakalan fun dan ngga bisa janji saya bantu kalau ada kendala, tapi bebas silakan ditanyakan kalau ada minat ke topik ini.
Apa yang ditulis di sini cocoknya lebih ke manajemen infra suatu perusahaan (bukan bagian pasang2 kabel), tapi bagus untuk diketahui karena ada kemungkinan besar konsep ini bakalan nempel ke kerjaan software engineer lain terutama yang menyentuh backend. Kalau di data engineering perusahaan saya, mengetahui konsep yang ditulis di ini itu juga salah satu yang di-list di onboarding (semacam guideline pengenalan) karyawan baru. Saya perhatikan juga sepertinya banyak fresh graduate nongkrong di /indonesia dengan segala anxietynya. Asumsi saya, at least kalau udah di sini artinya udah punya pengetahuan cara make DoH atau VPN, punya kemampuan komprehensif untuk membaca guideline teknikal dan mengikutinya.
Isi artikel ini akan ditulis dalam Bahasa Indonesia, because creating English guideline about general thing in /indonesia doesn't sound right for me. Dan karena saya sempat lama bekerja di perusahaan logat Jaksel, mohon maaf kalau logat saya campur2 aneh.
Guide ini saat ditulis maunya beginner friendly jadi mungkin pemakaian katanya kurang akurat. Mostly serious, a bit joking here and there. Mohon maaf kalau tidak berkenan.
Di bagian paling bawah post ini saya taruh notes. Kalau ketemu {noteX} scroll ke paling bawah saja.

VM / virtualization, sama contoh kasus

Yang baru kenal biasanya menghubung2kan VM dengan dual-boot. Tapi hal ini cuma relevan kalau kita bicara bagaimana menjalankan dua OS berbeda dalam satu komputer yang sama. Dua konsep tsb benar2 beda btw. Yang sama cuma perasaan gengsi bisa jalanin dua OS berbeda di laptop yang sama + kalau VM, rasa "aduh imut" yang dirasakan ketika melihat OS lain berjalan di dalam satu window kecil non-fullscreen. Ngga salah. Gengsi melakukan ini itu oke dan harus buat pemula.
Definisi formal VM/virtualization udah banyak kalau dicari di Google. Semua definisi kurang lebih sama: ini adalah satu cara untuk pengisolasian aplikasi ("running in a dedicated machine"), cara untuk menjalankan aplikasi yang hanya bisa berjalan mulus di lingkungan tertentu, atau cara membagi pemakaian satu mesin yang mempunyai resource (CPU/mem/disk) yang besar. Virtualization nyentuhnya sampai level hardware, yaitu OS yang ada di VMnya dikecoh bahwa memang ada hardware beneran di VM tsb padahal cuma virtual hardware.
Mainan VM ini dulu saya pake buat jalanin file exe yang saya download dari internet untuk cek itu file iseng apa bukan. Sekarang, VM-VMan ini saya pakai untuk kerjaan, utamanya untuk testing kodingan di platform (OS) berbeda. Selama ini kasusnya cuma Linux vs Windows, belum ketemu Linux vs Linux.
Contoh satu kasus, saya punya library Python yang saya develop untuk dijalankan di Debian-based OS (Debian atau Ubuntu). Kodingannya ngga gitu wah banget, bayangin cuma untuk menyederhanakan pengerjaan data analysis mengambil data database production{note1} baik yang tipenya MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, kemudian diolah (filter, agregat, dsb) dan disimpan ke Google Sheet. Pengen saya share tentang ini, projectnya lumayan fun jika bicara secara personal.
Install library ini cukup sederhana kalau di Debian/Ubuntu, tinggal "git clone" (ngga dimasukin ke PyPI lah, internal), terus jalanin "pip install -e reposaya" dijamin udah langsung bisa dipake (S&K berlaku: installnya di Python 3.7). Gampang kan? Nah... suatu hari datanglah 3rd party vendor yang mau memakai Python library ini supaya bisa satu tools dengan tim perusahaan kita. Kendalanya, mereka ini pakai Windows. Tim perusahaan kita mau ada guideline install Python library ini di laptop vendor.
Mintalah tim tsb ke saya. Sambil saya mengeluh dalam hati "Alamak, Windows?"... requirement dari tim perusahaan, guideline ini harus ilustratif install apa aja dan menjalankan command apa aja sampe librarynya bisa dipakai.
Saya follow guideline hasil Google search dan saya pakai VirtualBox + Windows 10 ISO di Ubuntu 20. Karena Windows 10 bisa jalan tanpa masukin activation key, ya udah ngga pake activation. Sudah selesai setup OS, install Miniconda (basically Anaconda, tapi lightweight) di dalam VMnya dan wah, library Python internal ini bisa bekerja. Intinya udah jadi guidenya setelah eksplorasi 2 hari penuh.
Untuk pembaca thread ini yang berminat, kalau mau mulai belajar, ambil installer ISO file yang official untuk OS pilihannya. Anda bisa coba Windows atau Ubuntu.
Terus coba install VMWare/VirtualBox. Saya pertama kali mengenal VM-VMan ini pakai VMWare di Windows, tapi sekarang lebih prefer pakai VirtualBox.
Setelah semuanya ready, coba buat VM di VMWare/VirtualBox menggunakan ISO file yang tadi didownload. Kalau di VirtualBox, pengalaman hanya tinggal New, ketik nama VM + set tipenya Windows 10 64-bit, kemudian sisanya default settings saja, terus saat VMnya dinyalakan dia akan keluar prompt minta ISO file. Nah kalau sudah sampai installation, input saja informasi yang diperlukan sama installernya termasuk pembuatan akun. Semua proses ini (untuk install Windows 10 di VM) memerlukan kira-kira 30 menit sampai 1 jam.
Test tadi pakai VirtualBox, tapi bisa juga pakai VMWare Workstation Player yang sama2 gratis.

Hypervisors

Software VMWare, VirtualBox yang dibahas sebelumnya tergolong satu keluarga software yang dinamakan "hypervisor".
Di level enterprise, hypervisor ini lebih luas pemakaiannya dari yang tadi digunakan dari laptop Anda di contoh sebelumnya.
Bayangkan perusahaan punya satu server fisik{note2} yang kekuatannya 8x laptop yang Anda pakai sekarang -- 32 CPU cores, 256 GB RAM {note3}{note4}.
Satu mesin ini umumnya dipakai sharing antar tim satu perusahaan, nah terlalu banyak service di satu node akan repot. Saat situasi heavy load, misal perusahaan ada kegiatan bagi-bagi voucher di aplikasi + buka event gacha karakter populer ke user-usernya (istilahnya "userbase"), dan service-service{note5} di node itu diperkirakan akan kerja keras.
Kalau dari sisi resources, jadinya nanti semua service di satu node itu akan berlomba-lomba siapa yang bisa mengambil 100% resource CPU/memory node tsb lebih dulu.
Kalau dari sisi networking, IP address cuma satu, terpaksa kalau service baru buatan tim lain harus bagi-bagi TCP port yang belum dipakai di node tsb. Berhubung TCP ports ngga punya banyak nomor cantik (1024-65536), bakalan ada beban ingatan buat developer untuk mengingat port mana digunakan service apa.
Banyak Linux distro juga punya keterbatasan yang namanya maximum open file, di mana satu OS harus bisa keep track file-file mana saja yang digunakan process yang sedang berjalan + network socket yang sedang dibuka https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/36841/why-is-number-of-open-files-limited-in-linux. Menurut pengalaman sering kejadian di satu node seperti ini yang dishare banyak tim, beberapa aplikasi crash karena open file limit contohnya di sini (catatan lagi: di Linux, network socket yang dipakai suatu process untuk komunikasi ke luar nodenya juga akan "open" satu atau lebih "file")
Seandainya satu node tsb dibagi-bagi ke beberapa VM, setiap tim diberikan (di-"assign") VM masing-masing dan service mereka berjalan on top of VM, nah meskipun satu node tsb shared dengan banyak tim tapi service-service yang jalan ngga akan bisa makan lebih banyak dari yang sudah dialokasikan -- karena OS dan aplikasinya dikecoh bahwa "kamu hanya punya resource CPU x cores dan y memory".
Selain VirtualBox (sepertinya cuma dipakai level testing lokal cmiiw), VMWware, ada lagi contoh hypervisor yaitu Proxmox. Proxmox ini, kita install sebagai OSnya di bare metal yang kita tuju -- bisa diinstall on top of existing Debian installation tapi kelihatannya advanced banget dan ribet. Kemudian setelah selesai akan ada UI nya di mana kita bisa membuat VM (kegiatan ini biasa disebut "provision") dengan mengalokasikan resource yang sudah ada (jumlah CPU, memory, dan disk space yang mau dipakai).
Proxmox bisa menggabungkan banyak node baremetal jadi satu cluster, dan jadi lebih terorganisir supaya manajemen VM tinggal dari satu node saja instead of harus login ke node-node yang diinstall Proxmox dan manage VM nya dari sana. Cluster ini juga bisa spawn VM lebih berimbang -- misal VM berikutnya akan dispawn di node yang resourcenya lebih lowong. VM di satu node juga bisa dipindah ke node yang lain dalam satu cluster, dalam situasi di mana node tsb harus dimaintenance (contoh, ditambahkan memory). CMIIW kalau ada yang pakai Proxmox di /indonesia.
Btw, OS tempat hypervisor diinstall biasa disebut "Host OS", sedangkan OS di dalam VM-VM yang dispawn oleh hypervisor dinamakan "Guest OS"

VM snapshots

Satu fitur yang umum dipunyai hypervisor itu adalah snapshot. Biasanya yang di-snapshot ini kondisi disknya pada suatu waktu, namun ada hypervisor yang snapshot state VMnya secara keseluruhan (semua data di disk + data di memory + settingan VM). Snapshot ini bisa dianggap suatu bentuk backup tapi perasaan saya snapshot itu lebih dari cuma backup. Kegunaan snapshot ini kalau saya tidak salah itu saat situasi "eh waduh salah/kedelete/ngga bisa uninstall sesuatu" bisa coba restore kondisi disk VM nya ke situasi sebelumnya menggunakan snapshot, jadi ngga perlu reset dan install OSnya dari awal. Membuat snapshot ini biasanya manual, harus usernya sendiri yang pilih.
Seingat saya beberapa hypervisor kalau melakukan snapshot punya syarat, yaitu disk yang disnapshot harus dalam keadaan ngga dipakai (idle).

Shared directories

Fitur lain yang umum di hypervisor itu untuk men-link direktori di Host OS dengan direktori di Guest OS supaya bisa tukar-tukaran file. Tujuannya fitur ini supaya mempersimpel kerjaan dibandingkan kita harus setup network directory manual di kedua OS atau setup FTP server supaya bisa bertukar file via network.
Kalau di VirtualBox, udah ada menunya Devices > Shared Folders di window yang muncul saat VM dinyalakan.

Containers / containerization

Virtualization dirasa ribet karena pemakaian resource untuk hypervisor ngga sedikit, jadinya jatah resource untuk VM-VM yang menjalankan guest OS berkurang diambil hypervisor supaya dia bisa jalan. Ngga bisa dihindari memang. Untuk boot up VM juga kelamaan sampai bisa dipakai.
Maka berikutnya dikembangkanlah konsep containerization.
Anggapan kasar, "container" ini sama tujuannya dengan VM yaitu untuk membuat environment yang terisolasi untuk aplikasi user yang berjalan di dalamnya supaya aplikasi lain yang berjalan di node yang sama ngga kena impact, dan untuk manage resources yang gede dipecah ke yang kecil-kecil. Tapi dibandingkan dengan VM yang membuat guest OSnya hampir dari nol, containerization ini lebih banyak memakai apa yang sudah ada di Host OS yang sedang berjalan. Kalau pembuatan VM itu anggapannya kerja keras mulai dari initialize hardware (dibikin virtual hardware), initialize kernel di dalam VMnya supaya bisa digunakan. Sedangkan kalau containerization itu ngga mau repot, udah ada hardware interface segala macam di Host OSnya dia main pakai saja instead of buat virtual hardware, udah ada kernel di OSnya ya udah dipakai lagi saja sama dia.
Saya ketemu grafik di sini yang menurut saya membandingkan container vs VM lebih mendetail dibandingkan resource lain di internet.
Nah tapi berhubung container itu beda dengan VM di mana ngga ada yang namanya install2an OS dst, ada keterbatasannya. Oleh karena container bergantung pada kernel, system library, dan lain-lain di hostnya (saya juga belum 100% paham), kalau ada perbedaan hal2 ini di platform lain, maka container ngga bisa jalan di platform lain tsb. Pernyataan ini lebih untuk menjawab pertanyaan: Bisa ngga di Ubuntu jalanin Windows container (bukan Windows VM)? Ngga bisa :( untuk kenapanya, bisa baca secara mendetail di sini: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/42158596/can-windows-containers-be-hosted-on-linux

Membuat container

Platform containerization yang populer pada saat tulisan ini dibuat itu Docker. Ada platform lain, tapi personally saya belum pernah pengalaman pakai selain Docker.
Dalam topik containerization, kita mengenal istilah "image". Secara personal saya lihat ini mirip konsep snapshot di VM (tapi ada perbedaan signifikan, dijelaskan di bagian berikutnya). Salah satu perbedaannya, image ini dapat dibuat dari set instruksi yang didefine pembuat imagenya. Bandingkan dengan snapshot VM yang harus ada guest OS yang jalan dulu baru bisa dibuat.
Container sebenarnya adalah image yang di-run. Kalau image saja, itu yang orang sebut sesuatu yang "abstrak". Belum bisa dipakai langsung.
Untuk Docker, kita punya Docker container dan Docker image. Singkatnya, Docker image itu "snapshot" yang dapat dipakai untuk membuat Docker container, dan Docker image ini juga dapat di-import untuk membuat Docker image yang lain. Ini cara yang paling umum dilakukan oleh pengguna Docker, saya yakin 99.99% orang ya kerjaannya import image yang uda jadi terus buat image baru dari situ.
Umumnya, Docker image didownload dari Docker Hub https://hub.docker.com/
Di sana banyak yang official (dibuat perusahaan besar atau komunitas yang well-known) dan banyak juga yang community. Saya pribadi cuma pakai yang official/well-known. Contohnya image yang udah ada Google Cloud SDK di dalamnya jadi ngga perlu install lagi, tinggal authorize. Contoh lain, Docker image dengan Python yang lightweight dan bisa langsung kita install pip package macam2 di dalamnya, tinggal masukin script Python kita dan jalan.
Docker container itu manifestasi nyata dari Docker image, yang bisa mulai dipakai. Di dalam Docker container bisa kita install atau masukin apa2, dan bisa pakai selayaknya itu VM biasa. Btw untuk pemula, selama bertahun-tahun memakai Docker saya ngga pernah ketemu/jalanin Docker container yang punya desktop yang bisa diklik2. Semua container diakses melalui terminal dan mau ngapa2in ya make terminal.

Membuat image

Docker image dibuat dari set instruksi yang disebut "Dockerfile". Dockerfile itu cuma file teks biasa yang umumnya punya nama literally "Dockerfile", dengan contoh isinya seperti ini...
``` FROM ubuntu:18.04
COPY . /app
RUN make /app
CMD python /app/app.py ```
Contoh Dockerfile yang lain bisa dilihat di official docs sini: https://docs.docker.com/get-started/part2/#sample-dockerfile, di sana dijabarkan setiap steps ngapain.
Di Docker image, setiap step di Dockerfile (kalau di contoh singkat di atas itu ada 4 step) akan membuat "layer" baru di image tsb. Setiap layer di satu image bergantung pada layer sebelumnya yang telah dibuat.
Contoh, di bawah ini adalah isi Dockerfile yang saya buat di mana saya mengcopy file app.csv dari host saya yang besarnya 1 GB, ke dalam image ubuntu:18.04. Kemudian di step berikutnya saya ZIP file tersebut. Ukuran zip filenya menjadi 500 MB. Kemudian file asli di imagenya saya delete.
``` FROM ubuntu:18.04
COPY app.csv /app/app.csv # besarnya 1 GB
RUN zip /app/app.zip /app/app.csv # besar ZIP filenya 500 MB
RUN rm /app/app.csv ```
Image ubuntu:18.04 yang saya pakai besarnya 99 MB. Setelah step keempat, besar image hasil step 4 dibandingkan dengan image awal (ubuntu:18.04) bertambah 1.5 GB menjadi 1.6 GB.
Kalau mengikuti step-step di atas, berlogika harusnya besar image hanya bertambah 500 MB dan bukan 1.5 GB. Penambahan 1.5 GB ini karena konsep layer di Docker. State pada setiap step akan disimpan. State pada step berikutnya hanya akan menyimpan perubahan yang terjadi (di-append, tidak bisa remove) pada state sebelumnya.
Untuk lebih jelasnya seperti ini, pada akhir step paling awal contoh di atas state imagenya berukuran 99 MB.
akhir step 2 (COPY), imagenya berukuran 1.099 GB. Jadi layer step 2 ukurannya 1 GB.
akhir step 3 (RUN zip), imagenya berukuran 1.599 GB. Jadi layer step 3 ukurannya 500 MB.
Nah pada akhir step 4 (RUN rm), imagenya tetap berukuran 1.599 GB. Command "rm" ini meskipun menghapus file, tapi ngga punya efek apa2 ke image size. Layer yang pada step 4 sedang dibuat (yang menjalankan "RUN rm" ini) tidak bisa mempengaruhi layer sebelumnya (hasil step 3) -- karena layer step 4 bergantung pada state layer sebelumnya (step 3).
Kalau image ini dibuat containernya, file yang dihapus oleh command "rm" ini tidak akan ketemu. Itu saja efek step 4 tadi.
Detail alasannya bisa dibaca lebih lanjut di sini: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/29380738/why-the-virtual-size-still-the-same-after-delete-a-file-from-container-with-rm
Resource di internet kalau kita baca2 pasti mention kalau container itu lebih lightweight, lebih kecil ukurannya dibandingkan VM. Tapi menurut pengalaman, kalau Anda belum mahir membuat image container maka ukurannya bisa meledak sampai hitungan GB. Contohnya di atas, kita remove /app/app.csv tapi dalam satu step terpisah. Hasilnya tidak berpengaruh ke ukuran image dan ukurannya tetap besar.
Untuk kasus di atas ada workaroundnya supaya ukuran image besar bisa dihindari, yaitu memakai multi-stage builds:
https://docs.docker.com/develop/develop-images/dockerfile_best-practices/#use-multi-stage-builds https://docs.docker.com/develop/develop-images/multistage-build/#use-multi-stage-builds
Nah, itulah pembahasan konsep "layer" di Docker. Cukup menarik pada saat saya pertama kali mempelajarinya, dan kadang termasuk interview question juga.
  • {note1} Yang belum tau istilah seperti "staging" "preproduction" "production" bisa lihat https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deployment_environment
  • {note2} Sebutannya "bare metal", karena kita benar punya fisik servernya instead of nyewa mesinnya seperti semua Cloud providers - GCP, AWS, dsb. Kalau nyewa cloud provider, kita kan ngga tau kalau munculin VM, mesin fisiknya yang jalanin VM tsb ada di lokasi mana.
  • {note3} Kadang server dipasangin GPU buat keperluan machine learning (ML).
  • {note4} Satu server seperti ini dengar2 berkisar belasan sampai puluhan juta, dan umurnya akan lebih pendek kalau sengaja dibanting atau disiram air kelistrikannya ngga dihandle dengan benar. Btw, menyewa data center di Indo itu salah satu biaya utamanya dihitung dari pemakaian listrik kalau saya tidak salah. Bisa tolong dikoreksi kalau saya salah.
  • {note5} Yang disebut "service" di sini contohnya aplikasi yang didevelop suatu tim di perusahaan tersebut dan sudah dijalankan di node tsb, atau aplikasi open source yang diinstall misalnya Gitlab, Grafana, dsb
submitted by __Blackrobe__ to indonesia

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